“Star Trek: Lower Decks” Breaks Protocol with LGBTQ Representation

On October 14, the season two finale of Star Trek: Lower Decks aired on Paramount+, and while the show is lauded by some for “breaking new ground” as a sci-fi comedy and mature adult animation, often reviewers don’t talk about the LGBTQ representation at the heart of the show itself.

Continue reading ““Star Trek: Lower Decks” Breaks Protocol with LGBTQ Representation”

An Alternative to the Studio System?: Indie Animation Forges Ahead

Screenshots from the pilot of Nori and Zin (left) and latest episode of Gods’ School (right).

Indie animation is on fire as of late. This is clear from the hundreds of thousands of dollars given to Final Space creator Olan Rogers for his animated project, Godspeed, which will document the “entire process of developing, writing, boarding, animating, and even pitching” an animated series. Sara Eissa, the creator of Astur’s Rebellion, an animated series Crunchyroll passed on (to their detriment), has been posting updates and news about a site/startup that she founded, named Toon Cave.

Reprinted from Pop Culture Maniacs and Wayback Machine. This was the eleventh article I wrote for Pop Culture Maniacs. This post was originally published on July 15, 2022.

Originally, it was a video-sharing platform for animated content, similar to the indie animation platform, Fiyah. Toon Cave recently changed to a “marketplace for freelance animators to find work or collaborate with other animators” which Eissa called “more viable“. Some may be disappointed in this result, but it could be a boon for indie animators. It will likely be NFT-free, since Eissa rightly recognized recently that “many artists are against it for ethical reasons”.

Many creators, artists, and others responded positively to my previous post about indie animation. As such, this post will not only be an update on that post, but it will highlight new animations that I wasn’t aware of at the time I wrote that post.

Patreon is buzzing with activity. The first episode of Nori and Zin is being animated by sharpytown. Lopside Animation, which produced Long Gone Gulch, is moving forward with rough animations and likely more episodes in the future. Zeurel says the pilot of his series, Monkey Wrench, is almost ready to be released. Those working on Sheepish, a series with a non-binary protagonist, are saving up money until they begin crowdfunding. They are continuing to work on the pilot.

Animator Rebecca Doodles has said she is going ahead with development of the now-3D animated cartoon, Stellapie, and other projects. Also of note is The East Patch, a series created by the same people behind The West Patch. It has retro animation, a nostalgic style, and amazing art. It continues to move forward. [1]

Production on future episodes of Heloise’s Dreamophrenia animated series continues forward. Gods’ School, created by a French animator, Gaylord C. Libessart, an indie animated series based on Greek mythology, continues to barrel ahead. A recent short episode about Aphrodite loving Ares and Hephaestus, and unsure of which one to choose, was released on the show’s official YouTube channel earlier this month. Unlike previous episodes, it is less than five minutes long. More animated shorts are in production, with one coming this fall.

Hannah Daigle, a bisexual animator who is creating Satina, is advancing with the project. She put out a call for additional animators earlier this year. Faeduck Studios, which I have mentioned in previous posts, a studio creating BIPOC LGBTQ+ animated films and short, in their words, decided to shelve Howdy Cloudboy as an animated pilot back in September. However, they decided to turn Howdy Cloudboy into a motion comic, meaning that it is still continuing. Since September, pages of the comic have been released on the studio’s Patreon. [2]

Otherwise, Wild Card, a mature murder mystery series about lawyers. It is created by a bisexual man named Alex Bahrawy. There are continued releases of Wild Card: Shuffled! illustrated pages on the show’s Patreon and Webtoon. According to the show’s official Twitter account, the pilot’s pre-production by Astrobun Studio is done.

Similarly, animated series by Black animator Brandon Wright, the creator behind Guardian Instance, Diver: The Animated Series, and Silver Lin, among other animations go forward. Vivienne Medrano, creator of indie smash hits Hazbin Hotel and Helluva Boss, noted progress on the second season of Helluva Boss, which is premiering on July 31. These series share similarities with Genevieve Fleming‘s House of Hell which is about demons, and a human girl, Oria, who “has to live with them in an abandoned house”.

This is only scratching the surface of this indie animation boom, if it can be called that. There are various currently airing indie animated series. Apart from the aforementioned Helluva Boss and Hazbin Hotel, the latter in development for a full-fledged animated series, there’s Ollie & Scoops. The series, by Nico Colaleo, a good friend of Medrano, just aired its ninth episode, “Vinnie Video“.

In comments below the episode, Colaleo noted that episode 10 will pick up where this episode left off. More episodes are likely in production. The series is notable especially because it includes many well-known voiceover artists. This includes Kimmy Robertson, Eric Bauza, Mara Wilson, James Rolfe, Mike Stoklasa, and Daron Nefcy.

Eddsworld, is currently airing. Matt Hargreaves is the current showrunner. emojitown, a series by the emoji company and Wisdom Nunn‘s Bob’s World are also airing. In the latter case, two episodes of the series have aired on YouTube. The third episode is currently in production. Slowly airing this year is an independent anime series, Interstellar Ranger Commence.

The first episode was released on the official YouTube channel of Browntable, the series production company, on April 2nd. Although the episodes were originally scheduled to be released on a monthly basis, the second episode was delayed to sometime in July.

The same can be said about Michael and James, a series by Jon Lopez, who is also a lead animator for Eddsworld. The last episode aired in February, and the series is currently on hiatus. This short web series sticks in my mind because the first episode is a musical song by Elsie Lovelock who voices a guitar-singing girl named Leslie Loveydovey declaring “This House is Mine” as she invades the house of Michael and James. Lovelock later voiced Charlie Magne in the pilot of Hazbin Hotel. She has voiced many other characters and records covers for her YouTube channel.

There are other series currently in production just as exciting. Take, for example, Indigo, a sci-fi animated series created by a Latine non-binary storyboard artist named Moon, who often draws The Owl House fan art. Max is a non-binary protagonist, who realizes that the universe is ruled by two alien dictators, and goes on a journey to stop them. The pilot episode is currently in production. Moon put out a search for 2D animators and background artists for the series. They even created a Discord server for indie animation! The series, according to the show creator, will include asexual characters, robots, and villains scarier than before. [4]

Various indie animators responded to a tweet from Moon. There were some series I was familiar with, like the coming-of-age Stars Align, a cop series named Succubus Cop, and a space opera series Lumi and the Great Big Galaxy. In addition is a pilot by two gay married men (Félix M. and Floyd) filled with LGBTQ+ characters, Gadzooks! & The Cryptoid Kids, and a New Orleans based series named LimeLight.

Also of note is the magical slice-of-life entitled Mugshot and Pollen, the artistic-themed Long Way from Del’Arte, a horror-action-romance pilot named Nocturne, a fully deaf produced animated show named Corrupted Memories, and an upcoming series named Fighting All Odds.

There were other series I was not aware of, such as a sci-fi action adventure named Defenders of Alodia, a horror sci-fi named Crater Cove, and Creosote Raining! by Joshua. The latter recommended I mention an independent horror mini series, My Roof. There are many more I could mention, like a 2D science-fantasy named Among the Others and the game-themed Bit Wars. [5]

Fighting All Odds is more than an upcoming series. On January 28, the show’s creator, Robert J. Preston, told me in a direct message that the show is a coming-of-age story about Jackie. While she is deaf and hard of hearing, her deafness isn’t the subject of the show, as noted by Preston. Rather, the focus is on her hero’s journey. At certain points, Jackie uses American Sign Language (ASL) to talk to specific people. There are two deaf consultants to make sure the series best represents a “group of people who deserve more representation.”

The series has LGBTQ characters, like a non-binary character named Oli/Ironside, and those with disabilities. Preston emphasized these characters aren’t written different from any others. In his words, Jackie’s struggles come from her choices as a hero and individual, but not because of her deafness. He added that the series may touch upon LGBTQ identities and disabilities of specific characters as part of the “exciting super hero action story”.

Corrupted Memories, an animated series by a deaf Latine storyboarder, Jocelyn Saravia, has some thematic similarities to Fighting All Odds. This series is aiming to be a “fully deaf produced animated show”, with a pilot coming out possibly in the next year or so. The series may have some themes reminiscent of Inside Job, by former writer for Gravity Falls, Shion Takeuchi, as it centers on a “mysterious stolen experimental drug” which causes tension between college students, who try and find answers and attempt to piece together what happened.

As the show’s official website says, they don’t want those investigating the incident to know everything. The series may also be influenced by series such as Kim Possible, as Saravia says they were inspired to go into animation because of the show, and The Owl House, since she is a big fan of the latter series. They are also the creator of a comic named Mother Traces.

This differs from Evan’s series, Lumi and the Great Big Galaxy. The show’s Kickstarter further describes it as a sci-fi fantasy with humor and adventure, and a “mix of both episodic and linear storytelling.” The page also notes that this animated series in development is inspired by Wonder Over Yonder and Steven Universe, and says it has been in development since he was in middle school. The series is planned to be released in either late 2022 or early 2023, with the voice actors even outlined!

This series is as exciting as LimeLight. It is a series, according to its Patreon, mainly set in New Orleans. The series focuses on Ashira GoldenFire who is trying to make her way in the music industry but she becomes associated with “darker side of life” through Carter Sillver. She falls in love with him, but her future from then on is uncertain. Its quite an exciting hook into the story.

The series had its first livestream with the show’s voice actors, creator MoralSky (Hannah I. Johnson), and many others, streamed on the show’s YouTube channel. These creators recognize what Jenn, co-creator of the Sunflower Club, stated: “indie animation is not for the weak”.

Penelope LeBlanc lovingly hugs Dakota Rivers, while Elizabeth Montgomery looks on in a screenshot of a short animated clip by Stars Align creator, Thea

The Patreon for Stars Align, a slice-of-life fantasy with LGBTQ+ representation may open on August 1, according to Thea, the show’s creator. There was recently a collaboration with another upcoming musical series, Sunnyside Magic High. Thea noted that Stars Align takes inspiration by The Owl House. This isn’t a surprise as she has drawn The Owl House and Amphibia fan art. Currently, writing for the pilot episode is done, while plotlines for season one are being worked on.

In an interesting coincidence, there is an anime series with the same name directed by Kazuki Akane, and cut from 12 episodes down from 24 at the last minute. That series shares something with Thea’s Stars Align. There is LGBTQ representation as well. Yuta “Yu” reveals he is “binary trans, x-gender, or something else entirely” as one reviewer pointed out. The series also has a focus on mental health too like Thea’s Stars Align. In response to a fan, Thea noted that she was aware of this similarity two years after she had created her characters.

On a related note is Pia’s Mugshot and Pollen, a magical slice-of-life. I’m a big fan of older slice-of-life series like Azumanga Daioh, and Dear Brother, and newer series such as Ascendance of a Bookworm, Akebi’s Sailor Uniform, Laid-Back Camp, Let’s Make a Mug Too, and YuruYuri. I also like stories with magic, so this series would be right up my alley, and anyone else who enjoys such as series.

On a different vein is storyboarder Amber Avara’s Nocturne, filled with “vampires, retrofuturistic tech, nu-wave music”. She describes the series as a cross between Jem and the Holograms and Berserk. It shares some similarities with Allissoon’s Battle of the Bands. The latter is a 2d mature animated series in development about a world where musicians “have elemental powers based on the genre of music they play”. It is a series which sounds like a real rocker, for sure.

Then there’s Mysteries of Kruger Mansion which follows 14 young adults, ages 18 to 19, cast in a reality game show set in a haunted mansion. According to a direct message from Deric Jackman, one of the show’s co-creators (Adam Blubdi is another creator), this turns into a quest for “sinister truth” behind the mansion. It is, in his words, a “dark drama thriller” with blood, comedy, and a deep-cutting story.

The series, once finished, will air on the YouTube channel of Blu Productions, the company producing the series. The series, in some ways, gives me the same vibe as the classic 1993 supernatural black comedy film, Addams Family Values. It also makes me think about the short-lived young adult animated series, The Hollow, which had reality game show elements.

On another note is a sci-fi action-adventure cartoon named Defenders Of Alodia. It is created by Naya, a 19-year-old Black animator and SCAD student. Art direction and character design are by Vector Convoy. This series, in development, has a Kickstarter in the process. It is being produced by an emerging animation company, Boldbird Studios.

A recent tweet from the show’s official Twitter account said it has “Black girl magic” and stated that the series is “coming soon”. It fundamentally differs from Long Way From Del’Arte. The latter focuses on artistic friends who travel their world of “art, magic and science to find ancient stones that have the power to grant wishes”. All these projects come with a risk, even though many don’t want to deal with studios anymore, as some have noted.

Otherwise, Shannon Mowatt’s 16-minute animatic of Revamped, has been released in advance of the full animated pilot. It is an upcoming short queer film about four high school sophomores who deal with school life, vampires, and the supernatural world.

There’s the Lackadaisy film about 1920s gangster cats, based on Tracy J. Butler’s webcomic. Another series, Outcasts, has cats as characters. Shou Tuzi’s Tallyho! series continues to develop. It is inspired by steampunk, fantastique, and other media. Tuzi’s studio, Skull Hare Studio, is also working on Arthur: The Timeless Knight.

Daniel is continuing to pursue his action adventure series, Lumeon Lands, which has begin production. These series are important to highlight when Hollywood continues to end projects and sack animators. Some have put hope in indie animation, noting it has the promise to allow creators to have “creative control” unlike working under major studios.

While there are many indie animations I could mention. [6] However, I’d like to focus on a few series in development. One of those is Sam Sawyer’s SALEM, also known as Salem or S.A.L.E.M.: The Secret Archive of Legends, Enchantments, and Monsters. In May, SpectroliteAAA, the lead storyboard artist said that she could talk about it soon, but not yet. In January, Sawyer, when asked by a fan, said the same thing.

The series has been fully funded. The now-fulfilled Kickstarter defines the series as an animated story about “a cryptid with a big heart and even bigger questions, on a quest to discover their true origins”.

Apart from having high-profile voice actors like Laura Bailey, Rob Paulsen, and Adam McAarthur, a tweet from the show’s account confirmed Petra as asexual, Salem (who is also non-binary) as pansexual, and Oliver as gay. The series has Randy Abrams as executive producer. It is being animated with help from Surfer Jack Productions, a company said to specialize in “ingenious storytelling”. The company was founded by animation industry veterans Jeff “Swampy” Marsh, Lance LeCompte, and Bernie Petterson.

There are other series in development. This includes Georden Whitman’s pilot named Port by the Sea on two kids who are “sailing the seas to fix a now broken moon”, Matt Acuña’s fantastical adventure The Garden Age, and the Far-Fetched Show, an animated seriesabout a rock band of misfits” by Ashley Nichols and Dave Capdevielle.

In addition, there’s a demon/vampire themed series in the process entitled Bloodgore, the psychological horror dramedy named Please Stay Tuned, the ghost-themed Ghost Hunt, a sci-fi themed SpaceAges, and many more. These are a small sampling of the indie animated series out there. [7] These persist despite the problem of distribution and funding to “make original stuff”, and possible iffiness of crowdsourcing, as writer Chris Hill pointed out.

Port by the Sea‘s pilot will likely come out sometime later this year. The Far-Fetched Show is also moving ahead, with comics to go with the series like Wild Card. The Nichols’ Patreon notes that a lyrics video for the series band, Sesemoid, is coming out later this year. This also noted they are still working on the pilot. Currently, there is wonderful fan art of the show’s characters, including putting them in a Steven Universe setting, and much more.

The fact that Port by the Sea has over 1400 followers and Far-Fetched Show has over 67,600 followers, along with 406 Patreons of Nichols, proves what animator LanceArts pointed out: that the indie animation scene is “exploding with greater popularity now more than ever.

More episodes of Alpha Betas are currently in production, with recording for new episodes. Four episodes are set to be released in Fall/Winter 2022. Additionally, Lucha Vandross is fundraising for various indie animated series. This includes those inspired by 1980s Hong Kong films (Project Icarus and Project Icarus X) and a modern take on Robin Hood. The latter is about friends “robbing the rich and giving it to the poor” (Samson). [8] Animator 9Hammer is actively releasing series in Newgrounds, of all places. This includes series such as Chaotic Heart and Solace, with new episodes in production.

Others, like Warlord-of-Noodles, have ongoing series as well, which is also posted on YouTube and has a Patreon. Series like Deep States, by Molly, are on YouTube. There is the exciting 2d indie anime in development entitled Broken Beat, made by animators of prominent anime series, like Creative Theory. The series is about a protagonist, Sin, tasked with stopping the reign of the creator god, and challenged by an “endless conflict between humans and manifestors”. Sin masters his form along the way.

Newgrounds is a weird place. There’s a lot of terrible (and amateurish content) there, mixed with sexual content. It is more than what would YouTube would permit, and includes pornographic material. Apart from the series on hiatus by 9Hammer, Beyond the Fog, there’s The Looter, and Zack and Alex. The latter, by Jayevin Abad, had its pilot posted on YouTube as well. Otherwise, there are various other series, films, and more, which have aired on the site. [9] Some shows I’ve noted before in this post, and elsewhere, like Ollie and Scoops, Eddsworld, Tales of Alethrion, and Satina all have pages on the site.

Apart from Newgrounds, are further series in development. This includes The Art Of Murder, produced by an Australian indie 2D animation studio named Choc Chip. It is produced by Anokhi Somaia and directed by Nirali Somaia. Sonya Belousova and Giona Ostinelli are the series composers.

The Art of Murder is a murder mystery, musical, and pop culture parody where “sketchbook characters come to life” when the clock strikes midnight. It features voice actors like Lizzie Freeman, who also voices a character in Gods’ School, Lauren Lopez, who founded a popular online musical theatre company named Team Starkid. There’s also Joey Richter (part of the same theatre company), Joey Bizinger, a well-known Japanese-Australian voice actor, YouTuber, and more, and Megan Lee, a Korean-American singer-songwriter. 

There’s further projects of note. This includes various series by LGBTQ creators. [10] For instance, there’s an animated series such as Scrappers, Swift Spark and the Defense Five, Birdboys, and Novas. Scrappers and Birdboys are by trans women, Charlie Gultiano-Wyton and Danielle Maxine specifically. Swift Spark and the Defense Five is by a trans man, Pan. Novas is by a queer and trans artist, Jesse. Scrappers is being produced by Gultiano-Wyton’s animation studio, Variation Media.

Swift Spark and the Defense Five is by artist and animator, Pan, who loves Phineas & Ferb, and is based on a comic of the same name. Birdboys is by artist and animator, Danielle, with some teasers posted on her YouTube channel. Novas is the personal project of Jesse, a SCAD student, who posted a casting call for the animation on Tik Tok. What Avara, mentioned earlier in this article, stated is relevant here: support for indie creators is necessary if you “want to see diversity in animation”. Part of that is LGBTQ representation.

Just as exciting are the shows by Black creators. I’ve mentioned a few in this post already, including Creative Theory, Brandon Wright, Wisdom Nunn, Lucha Vandross, Nya, and Pia. For one, there’s a 2D animated series named Jumbie, produced by a small studio in Trinidad and Tobago, GemGfx Animation Studios. Originally scheduled for release in February of this year, the Jumbie pilot was delayed to February 2023, because the studio was working on a music video for “A Better Tomorrow”, a song by Mark Loquan, featuring Terri Lyons, which came out in April. With that, Jumbie is going forward.

In addition, there is an animated hiphop musical entitled Battu, which is scheduled to become an animated series on Cartoon Network. The latter has also picked up a show drawing from Nigerian culture entitled Iyanu: Child of Wonder to be overseen by a Black-owned animation studio, Lion Forge Animation. Before Disney Branded Television was headed by Ayo Davis, a Black woman, it agreed to pick up Iwájú. The latter is an Africanfuturist series set in Lagos, Nigeria. Disney is co-producing it with Kugali Media, a Pan-African entertainment company.

There are many other Black indie creators. There’s Vampire Nwt’s suspense mystery show entitled Blackwater Creek. It has queer Afro-Latine leads named after magic, monsters, and fruits! Even more exciting is Captain Zero. It is an action drama about a social media-obsessed superhero named Captain Zero who “must find the cause of his depression-fueled blackouts in order to save his city and himself.” The series is created by a Black non-binary illustrator, filmmaker, and writer, Lamard Cher-Aimé. It is produced by a Black-owned animation company, Cutting Edge Animation.

This animated series tackles “mental health in the Black community, identity,” according to Cher-Aimé. Currently, five seasons, 4 specials, and a feature film for Captain Zero are planned. The show’s GoFundMe states that with enough money it can turn the show into a reality. The show, and another produced by Cutting Edge Animation, Space Friends, are often promoted by Cher-Aimé. They often ask their followers to name show characters, and showcase series art and related merchandise. Interviews, Q&As, and more further pull in potential viewers on the show’s YouTube channel.

Recently, a short five-minute film entitled “Captain Zero: Into The Abyss”, funded in part by Chromatic Black’s Ida B. Wells fund, aired. It stars the Black trans actress Angelica Ross, who is the film’s executive producer. The film focuses on a therapy session of Xerxes Hughes, aka Captain Zero, with Dr. Niobe (voiced by Ross). It was posted on the show’s YouTube channel. It is within a video that is about 1 hour, 50 minute video, complete with mental health professionals, Ross, Cher-Aimé, and others talked about the film, Black representation in animation and comics, mental health, and many other topics.

These series prove what Ashley Nichols said: that “anyone can tell an amazing story.” It also seems to prove that people with vision and passion can make “god tier animation”. Amazing animation doesn’t always need a “studio behind it with a million dollars.” There is no clear answer for making indie animation viable. After all, people can still steal content of an indie animation and profit off it.

Even so, some have supported waiting longer for series to come to fruition, giving those producing it more time to rest, polish their ideas, and make the shows better. Furthermore, there is no doubt that corporate media fails to represent many aspects of society, with indie animation making cooler content despite the need for funds. There are the continual challenges of people not taking animation seriously.

Unsurprisingly, there have been calls for a website for indie animated series which works like Webtoon. The Animation for Adults site proposed an awards show just for indie animation. Creator Nation promoted a Discord server for indie creators, indie animated shows, and indie comics. Some noted news of Netflix’s war with its animation department by letting go many of its animation employees. Many creators responded sharing their series or pilots in the process. It has led more toward indie animation.

Creators have seen indie animation as the way to go. Some said that creators should do promos for other indie animations or said that now is the most important time to support, and follow, indie projects. This is coupled with the realization (and recognition) that those in the animation industry don’t have stable jobs.

Then, there’s Project City, created by Rad Sechrist, well-known as the showrunner of Kipo and the Age of Wonderbeasts. In February, I argued that Project City has “the potential to expand the indie animation space beyond…often crowdfunded series on YouTube”. I stated that it allows for “more independence for creators in the series, movies, music, or shows they create.” While it is amazing that Sechrist is funding, and creating, his next film (The Brave War), co-created with Andra Gunter and Daniel Rojas, independently, progress on the platform is somewhat slow.

There was lukewarm reception to his idea that people who buy shares in a project “have the right to make and sell merch” but have to “drop profits back into our system that distributes to all IP owners”. Some about the potential use of NFTs, which Sechrist realized was a good point. He is strongly against NFTs and for good reason. Others called it “iffy“, said the execution could be tricky, or worried it could set a bad precedent. On the other hand, there were those more receptive to Sechrist’s idea.

Project City now emphasizes its role as an animation school, including 15-minute lectures on various topics, and is now defined as a “project based platform for learning how to create animation.” Back in March, Sechrist said they are continuing with F-IP (fractional IP), where people could buy shares of an IP, but are not using Blockchain or NFT, and stated they would be launching it within the next month. That did not happen. The idea continues to be developed. A tweet from the project’s account used the #FIP hashtag on June 24. But, there haven’t been many more updates beyond that, as Sechrist last mentioned it in a tweet on January 7.

On the other hand, on June 18, Sechrist said that they have been wanting to take steps toward making Project City “a streaming platform of creators learning and sharing their process/knowledge.” He added that Project City takes “no ownership of IP people post”. Anyone can post and delete any video they have posted. In addition, he said they were considering allowing people to post 1 minute clips on the site. Ultimately, Project City may be part of what Avara describes, giving people a platform who wouldn’t have it “in the traditional studio setting”. More fundamentally, it is part of allowing creators to share stories on their own terms.

A few other indie animations are worth noting. Take for example, a comedy sci-fi music series named Starstruck, surrealist cyberpunk anime named Dreamcatchers, and an animated young adult horror mystery named Black Pines. There’s artist and animator Tamara’s Starmakers series (with a bisexual girl named Astra), and storyboarder Kaitrin Snodgrass‘s seeming space opera, Buckwild.

There’s also a young adult action-adventure fantasy film named The Will of Monsters, by filmmaker and animator Christopher Wade, an animated project named Big Cat Bandits, and about globe-traveling cat thieves “resisting an evil world-conquering empire with crime”. It was exciting to learn about 2D freelance animator Nadia Dar’s series based on growing up mixed race entitled Brighter, and an animated series named Ironface “steeped in 80s pop culture…part Terminator, and all NIGHTMARE” according to the show’s teaser. Others are just as intriguing, such as an action-comedy named Defender Squad about an alien woman who crash lands on Earth and “joins a low ranking two-person hero team” according to series creator Royal Wildfire.

These series, and many others, [11] are examples of creating animation without connections to big companies. These creators aren’t on “puppet strings“. Unlike series produced made by big companies, indie animations obviously depend on people’s support, due to lack of support from the industry unsurprisingly. The indie animations are often shared by their creators, following the basic marketing advice some shared about small indie creative projects. Still, it is worth remembering, as The Owl House creator and bisexual animator Dana Terrace once pointed out, “nothing is precious in animation.”

This makes me think about a Russian indie series about a family of Metalheads entitled Metal Family. It seems to have stopped for the time being. Western sanctions on Russia limited financial options available to Russians. They resulted in challenges for the show’s staff in getting money necessary for the show’s continuation. From comments on the Metal Family subreddit, I get the impression that the series is a rut now and won’t be coming out anytime soon. Presumably work on episodes is going forward, but slowly. My enthusiasm for the series dissipated after a character used an anti-gay slur unnecessarily and no one attempted to improve the dialogue.

On a more positive note, there are are creators such as a 2D Thai animator named KAGO, and an indie feature animation director, Fnook. Indie animation studios Cloudrise Pictures, Paper Panther, Tapocketa, Krispy Animation, and Bandit Mill are producing animations. The latter is working to create “unique, different adult animation” such as The Boys of Boxtown. Bitter Animation is making a pilot named Stranger and many other animations. The indie animated studio, Sunflower Club, is going forward with Little Wolf and Life in Hell.

There are many other series in the works. This includes DynamoToon‘s sci-fi fantasy comedy named Horizonauts. There’s also a queer Colombian-American 2D artist and animator named TipsyJHearts creating a series entitled The Evil Little Thing, and an animated series named The Porcelain Prince by Gabrielle Teaford. Also of note is an unnamed sci-fi crime drama “heavily inspired by Avatar and RWBY” by Keelan270, and Animation Emfatuation’s Crime!, a short film in the process about knightlights and teddy bears which fight monsters at night entitled Knightlights & Teddy Bears. 

It is worth pointing to a 2D-animated cartoon with slapstick and adventure entitled The Incredible Adventures of Detective Cat, an independent drama named GrindCove, Angye Burman’s Real Fantasy: Fight for the Past which focuses on four teens who try to figure out their future while “fighting off evil…and struggling with school”. Then there’s a series by an animator, Shorter, named Gangs for Rent. It is an animated sitcom about gangsters, with LGBTQ people, those on the spectrum, and with mental disorders.

There are many other indie animated series out there, [12] some of which aren’t in this article despite my best efforts to find as many series as I could. Cartoon Crave promotes some of these series on Twitter. Supporting indie animation is important to provide a viable alternative to often stifling studio system which ingests shows and spits them out. Likely the indie animation boom will continue as companies continue to cut animators and cancel shows.

© 2022-2023 Burkely Hermann. All rights reserved.


[1] This paragraph used information from the Patreons of sharpytown, Lopside Animation, Zeurel, Sheepish Series, Rebecca Doodles, and the East Patch. The West Patch is being pitched in hopes of becoming a more full-fledged series in the future.

[2] This paragraph used information from Patreons of Heloise&RS, Gods’ School, Hannah Daigle, and Faeduck Studios.

[3] This paragraph used information from Patreons of Wild Card, Essieo, Brandon Wright, and Vivienne Medrano.

[4] See tweets here, here, and here.

[5] There’s two series adapted from comics: the supernatural series WeatherWitch, and robot-themed Space Cops. Others with previously aired series, like Lions Light and Sirenetta also responded. Other examples are a surreal adult animation named Tailocity, a sci-fi thriller named Eidolons Vision, a fantasy-adventure named Bonorum, a boxing fantasy named Punch Drunk Monkey by Brad Braché, the superhero series Aleph Stars, a cartoon about an overpowered superhero horse and “his sidekick Beaver fighting Evil” named Atomic Horseman, J.M. Collado’s Finding Alyx about a “child who learns…art of self expression through his alternative neighbors“, and an original “medieval post-cyberpunk science fantasy series” named Rogue Metro.

[6] Take, for example, joolia‘s The Legend of Pipi animated film, a channel named GLITCH creating animated shows, a short 3D animation film Grandma My Love (Mi Amor), a media brand named The Dynamite Twins and Friends with shorts, clips, and music, an animated series by Aran W of Fiyah entitled Scratch, an animated series by Corey named Newt currently on hiatus, an animated series entitled Don’t Touch the Props, the mature animated series Boy Meets Underworld, an animated series named Blood and Skinny Hedgehog, animated shorts featuring Serenity Lockhart, and a series centered around teenagers with magical powers and must save the world entitled Warlocks of Wrath High.

[7] Others include a slowly moving flash animated series, True Tail, C. Cameron’s Wimp Witch, Colin McCall‘s adventure-comedy Evelynne Doom, and hints that Zak Wood will independently produce the action-musical Band of Mythix. There’s Crash Tako’s Lovers in Crime, which currently has a pilot, Micaela Wainstein’s series in development, The Crystal Eden, an original anime named The Kaminai, a sci-fi series named Deranged!, an animated series named CRiTORA, a slowly developing series named Jade, an animated web series entitled Bleating Heart, Glenn Draper’s Space Landers, and Marabelli: A Scoundrel’s Tale, a series produced by Adventure Noises and created by Benjamin Feldman, is moving into full production.

[8] He is trying to produce a hip-hop influenced 3D action game named Supremacy, which looks pretty cool.

[9] Some Newgrounds series that ended include Interface (ended in October 2021) and Monster Lab (ended in December 2021). Some films on Newgrounds that have aired include Heartbreak (2022), Winter Blues (2022), The World of Literal Hat (2022), Home (2022), Tales from Scortchwater Valley (2022), The Wind Whistles (2021), The Wait (2021), Gilded Guy Gets Up (2021), Butch (2021), and Hot Salsa (2020).

[10] There’s a series by queer writer Stephanie “Steph” about an ambitious space pilot named Space Pilots and a queer western action- romance story entitled Limbo by a trans man named Inukuma. Also there’s a LGBTQ animated series named Summoners, created by a gay man named Blurzy, who describes it as “about a bisexual boy who lives in a world with magical abilities and a futuristic time frame”. There’s a series by a abrosexual art hobbyist named Violet about a trans elf girl, a sweet girls love film directed by Sophie Feher entitled Piece of Cake, and Inukuma‘s Romancing Roslyn Cherry.

[11] Likely Bloop and Friends, Frootoon‘s Project Tideaway, LZbrosThe Alyssian, Feldman’s Accidental Gehenna, Régis (Reggie) Camargo‘s Hockey, Love And GUTS!, CheesyTrishy‘s Dragon Falls and Crime Time, Sophie Bergers’ Framed, Artixi‘s Destination Unknown, BBGannon’s Alfred the Alien, Shiloh’s Zeyka, Poolustrations’ The Cosmos in your Eyes, Gabis’ The Fantastic Warriors, Courtney’s Sorein, Rebecca’s Royal Pain, Crescent Fire, and Brady’s Crash in the System are moving forward.

[12] Take, for example, animator and illustrator Colleen Gundersen’s unnamed series, an animated pilot by @LSMark_, and Legends of Myiorda (Myiorda No Shinwa), an original anime by Eternal Arts Studios. Century Park remains in the lurch because they haven’t found an Indigenous teen to voice the protagonist, the pilot of The Heroes of Tomorrow is moving ahead, as is Wolves of Cecila, and The Shadow Marked. Cartoon Connect is working on Lil Ron Ron. There have been no updates on Ana/Dami’s Harri’s World since January 2021 nor Dark Pages since December 2021, or Re:Quest. The studio producing the series stated the cast would be announced in November 2021, but that did not happen. Although there haven’t been any updates for some time, The Descendants animated series may be moving forward.

Entrapta, She-Ra, and Autistic Representation

This is reprinted from Neurotastic and was a shorter version of my post a couple days before on the same topic.

When people think of autism, Raymond Babbit in Rain Man, Christian Wolff in The Accountant, or Sheldon in Big Bang Theory, may come to mind. These negative stereotypes persist in popular culture despite increased positive representation for autistic characters. She-Ra and the Princesses of Power (SPOP) is different.

While the series rightfully received accolades for its LGBTQ+ representation, there is another aspect of the show: positive autistic representation. Entrapta (voiced by Christine Woods), a curious and sensitive hacker, scientist, and “geeky princess,” is a well-written autistic character. SPOP series creator Noelle Stevenson stated that autistic storyboarder Sam Szymanski played a huge role in shaping Entrapta.

Behind the Mask

Whether she is seen as “morally grey,” “adorkable,” or “chaotic neutral,” she is a smart character who makes her own decisions and tries to fix problems through a mechanical means. Unlike the show’s other protagonists, Adora, Glimmer, Catra, and Bow, around age 17 or 18, she is older, in her late 20s or early 30s. She struggles to connect with others, due to her occasional low self-worth, and sometimes hides behind her mask, affixed to her face. Her voice changes when wearing the mask, as she tries to cover up her autistic traits and appear neurotypical.

As Noelle described Entrapta, she struggles to communicate her feelings or understand what other characters are saying, seeing “humanity in everything,” whether clones, robots, or otherwise. In the show’s most recent, and last season, she begins to balance her love for machines and a desire to connect with others, while helping the protagonists save the world of Etheria, where the series takes place, from the villainous Horde Prime. One of the characters she humanizes is Hordak, former leader of the evil Horde. Their interactions, in the show as a whole, led some fans (and members of the show’s crew) to ship them as “Entrapdak.” This was confirmed as canon in a Black Lives Matter charitable Twitch stream hosted by Noelle and her wife, Molly Ostertag.

Noelle also stated that Entrapta, as a loving person, has a lot of robot boyfriends and girlfriends. The latter is reflected in the show’s most recent season when she flirted with technology, specifically the Horde Robot in the episode “Launch,“and the spaceship, which she named “Darla,” in the episode “Stranded.” Whether these are examples of robosexuality, referring to love or sexuality between a robot and a humanoid person, or not, there is not question it is part of her propensity to see humanity in everything.

System Failure

Entrapta freely makes her own decisions as an “underappreciated technowizard,” some of which are reprehensible. For instance, she helped the Horde destroy much of Etheria. Although she stayed loyal to her friend, Hordak, it is incorrect to call her the “worst kind of villain” or a person who cares only about pursuing knowledge despite the consequences. Whether she is fully aware of the planetary damage she has caused, she is undoubtedly morally ambiguous, with a “cheerfully wobbly” moral compass, different than the show’s other characters.

She thinks that her calculations and data will give her the “answers,” no matter the cost. As such, it is incorrect to say she lacks the ability to self-assess her actions or embodies stereotypes. After the Princesses unintentionally stranded her in the Fright Zone, she joined the show’s villains, the Horde, leading some to declare that she is a harmful form of representation, while others claimed she believed the lies of Catra, Adora’s romantic interest. In any case, Entrapta willingly stays with the Horde and the Princesses respect this decision while disagreeing with it.

There is a deeper reason she joined the Horde. When Glimmer and Adora meet her in her debut episode, “System Failure,” fighting the murder robots she accidentally created, Glimmer sees her as a way to impress her mother and win the war against the series villains. In contrast, Glimmer’s friend, Bow, sympathizes with Entrapta, calling her a “brilliant inventor,” praise she happily accepts. Despite Glimmer’s negative vibe, she stays friendly, and offers to cut off her leg to save them from the robots.

A few episodes later, in “Princess Prom,” Entrapta geeks out, describing the prom as a “social experiment” which is the best place to observe social behavior. She pries into Glimmer’s uneasiness and becomes friendly with Catra. Later, after Adora pulls her aside, it is implied that Entrapta’s heart isn’t with the Rebellion. The forcefulness of Glimmer, Adora, Mermista, and Perfuma toward her throughout season one, may be a subconscious turn-off for Entrapta, with the Princesses not completely understanding her. While the Princesses mourn the “death” of Entrapta, unknowingly leaving her behind, they had used her for their own purposes (defeating the Horde). Catra does the same thing, using her to get back at Adora.

Finding Friends in Exile

Furthermore, Entrapta may have been unaware she defected to the Horde or cares what side she is on. In the episode “Ties That Bind,” she tentatively says she is with the Horde, telling Glimmer that she is on the side of science, but is living in the Fright Zone. Near the end of season three, considering what Adora told her, she tries to warn Hordak to not open a portal which threatens to destroy Etheria. Catra panics, electrocutes Entrapta, and tries to distance herself from her mistakes by sending Entrapta into exile onto the remote Beast Island. In the bizarre world created by the portal, Adora and her friends meet Entrapta who helps them figure out what is happening and thanks Adora for being a friend. In the following season, she is thankful that Bow, Adora, and their talking horse, save her from Beast Island, a place full of “technological monstrosities.” Although she left Beast Island for scientific discovery and data, she appreciates Bow as a friend.

Due to Entrapta’s track record with the Horde, the princesses are distrustful. This is shown in the season five episode, “Launch.” As Megan Crouse describes it in her article, Entrapta begins to clash with the other princesses, putting them in danger. When Mermista accuses her of not caring about them and being untrustworthy, she responds by not realizing the Princesses were angry with her in the first place. She retreats to apologizing, stating: “I’m not good at people, but I am good at tech. I thought maybe if I could use tech to help you, you’d like me. But I messed that up, too.” After this, Entrapta tries to get away, but Mermista pulls her back by her prehensile hair, like Horde Prime in a later episode, relenting only when convinced that Entrapta cares about Glimmer.

In the rest of the season, she works to earn the trust of the other Princesses, gaining more friends as she recognizes the reasons behind her actions and explores her feelings for others. While you could say that Entrapta does not see the full consequences of her harmful actions, she overcomes possible social isolation and helps the series protagonists save their friends (first Glimmer, then Catra) from Horde Prime’s flagship, the Velvet Glove. She also removes the mind-control chip from Catra’s neck and forgives Catra after she apologizes for her hurtful actions. In the final episode of the season, after trying to disable mind-control chips of those across Etheria, when held against her will on the Velvet Glove, she apologizes to everyone. Later, after Catra and Adora save the world with their love, she reunites with Hordak.

Entrapta Represents

In the end, Entrapta is a positive form of representation for autistic people and subverts the Entrapta from the original She-Ra series, a simple villain without a conscience.

© 2020-2023 Burkely Hermann. All rights reserved.

“We wrote her that way”: Entrapta and autistic representation in She-Ra

Entrapta forgives Catra for exiling her to Beast Island at the end of Season 3, and being a jerk to her in the past, in the episode, “Taking Control”

In November of last year, I wrote about Entrapta, one of my favorite characters in the animated series, She-Ra and the Princesses of Power, because she is morally gray character, a hacker, and a “smart and quirky chaotic neutral icon.” In that post, I examined her character in the first four seasons of the show, noting that she is an autistic character who makes her own decisions, acting as “a princess with prehensile hair who is [also] a scientist and inventor always trying to tinker with ancient technology. ” I also criticized some who claimed she is a “hurtful” representation of autistic people, noting that she is sweet and underappreciated, pointing out that Bow is the only one who sees her sympathetically, and that she stays in the Fright Zone by choice. I further noted that she is dedicated to science and research, sticks up for Catra when Hordak wants to send her to Beast Island, and stated that when she is rescued from Beast Island in Season 4 she “goes with them back to Bright Moon because of data and scientific discovery, not because of friendship or anything else.” I additionally made a comparison between her and Peridot in Steven Universe, with storyboarder Maya Peterson (the same one who said Peri is asexual and aromatic), said she doesn’t interpret Peridot as autistic. I intend this post will be an update from my previous post, talking about her in the show’s final (and fifth) season, which started streaming on May 15th.  If you haven’t see the new season, please do so because this post is filled with spoilers! It is important to write about this because series creator Noelle Stevenson confirmed that Entrapta was autistic, basing her on an autistic person on the SPOP crew, a full-time storyboard artist named Sam Szymanski. [1]

Most of the commentary about the new season has focused on the mutual confession of romantic feelings by Catra and Adora, shipped as Catradora, who kiss in the show’s final episode, with their love literally saving the world (and universe) from destruction. This is the right focus, while some have noted the other LGBTQ characters confirmed like Seahawk (whose ex is named Falcon), Kyle and Rogelio, the relationship between Perfuma and Scorpia, or the romance between Bow and Glimmer, among many other topics. [2] After all, as Lindsey Mantoan, wrote in a CNN opinion, She-Ra is the “best queer representation on television.” In the process, however, little has been said about Entrapta. In fact, of many reviews I looked at, only a few even mentioned her in their analyses, despite her pivotal role in at least part of the season. [3] While one reviewer for A.V. Club (Shannon Miller) claimed that the show trades an in-depth look at Entrapta’s treatment for “heroics,” and saying there could have been “more reflection from those who have outwardly had more difficulty understanding Entrapta’s mindset, ” another, for Forbes, Linda Maleh, says the opposite. Maleh argues that Entrapta gets a lot “a lot of screen time as she learns to balance her love of machines with her desire to connect with people,” calling her entirely “adorkable,” and that her character gives viewers some of the most touching and funny moments of the show. I tend to agree with Maleh more than Miller. Similarly, I think that Heather Hogan of Autostraddle makes a valid point in saying that Wrong Hordak brought out the charming parts of Entrapta, stating that it was nice to see her understanding how to work alongside friends, express herself better, and her feelings, while the princesses “start to understand her for who she really is.” Although it is positive these reviewers noted her role in the season, there is clearly a lot more going on about Entrapta than what Miller, Maleh, or Hogan talk about.

Entrapta, who is between the ages 28 and 30, appears in every single episode of the fifth season, apart from episode 10, can be said to be the “smartest” character in the series. In the previous season,  she was rescued from Beast Island by Bow, Adora, and Swift Wind, reminded about her true friends while ancient technology continued to pull her in. In contrast, in this season, she struggles to find a place among the other princesses, as highlighted in the episode “Launch.” Since Entrapta has been a morally grey character in the past, it makes sense that the princesses are a bit distrustful. Even Emily, with her name as an obscure reference to Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy, turns away from Enttapta when it appears that she cares more about tech “than saving their friend.” After that episode, the princesses begin to understand her better. She later helps out Adora and Bow save Glimmer from Horde Prime’s flagship. Glimmer is transported through space by Catra, in her first likely selfless act. She then helps Adora, Bow, and Glimmer successfully rescue Catra from Prime’s flagship, called the Velvet Glove. She even does surgery on Catra, removing the chip in her neck. She, additionally, forgives Catra after she apologizes for treating her terribly. As a reminder, at the end of Season 3, Catra panicked when Entrapta tried to warn Hordak to not start the portal. She then orders her to be sent to Beast Island. She is shocked with what she is done (as is Scorpia by this cruel act against her), beginning her descent down a “dark, dangerous path.” Basically, Catra blamed Entrapta for her own mistakes.

In the rest of the season, Entrapta continues to help the princesses and tries to disable all the chips before being transported to Prime’s flagship. She apologizes to everyone when captured by Prime, literally the head of a cult of mindless drone soldiers. Whether Entrapta has platonic or romantic feelings for Hordak, the latter shipped as Entrapdak by one of of the show’s story editors (and some other fans), it is up the viewer. [4] As some fans noted back in March, a few months before the recent season premiered, it is clear that there is “some chemistry between her and Hordak” and some even call their relationship “sweet,” although I’m not sure I would go that far. In any case, it does mean that Hordak is more than a one-dimensional villain like in the original She-Ra: Princess of Power series in the 1980s which was used to sell action figures for Mattel. Through some searching, I did find an interview with Stevenson (complete with unfortunate spelling errors by the person who wrote the transcript of her interview responses) where she specifically talks about how Entrapta grows in this season:

I think with a character like Entrapata [sic], we sort of live in a little bit of her own version of the world that the other characters don’t always understand…It’s not only Entrapta learning how to empathize and connect with others, but also for others to learn how to empathize and connect with her. And so I think with both sides of that, we see [Entrapta] growing this season. What I think has always been [Entrapta’s] strength is that, even if she might struggle with communicating her feelings or understanding other characters when they’re communicating their feelings to her, I think her strength as a character — kind of her superpower — is that she sees humanity in everything. Not just in humanoid or organic creatures, but she sees humanity in robots. She sees humanity in the AI that drives ships. She sees humanity in one clone in a million identical clones and knows their personality and knows who they are and knows how to connect with them… I think we see her make a lot of progress on that front, but then we also see her. I think she does more than almost any other character in humanizing characters who have never been humanized before by anyone….It’s so much of what is the heart of this show. It seems like that’s what makes Etherea [sic] special in general is that everyone who comes to Etherea [sic] isn’t getting broken by it a little bit. They end up making connections and falling in love in ways they never thought were possible. And I think Entrapta really embodies that.”

Furthermore, as a morally grey character, who played a “big hand in some of the Horde-led destruction on Etheria,” she still cares about her friends. While some may question her renewal of the individuality or “humanity” of Hordak, becoming his first genuine friend, later leading him to turn against Horde Prime, she clearly had a “unique perspective on the world that not everyone understands.” Earlier in the season, when she encounters Hordak before he is freed from Prime’s control, in an attempt to access the computer control center of Horde Prime so she can disable the mind-control chips, helped by Swift Wind, she tells Hordak “remember, your imperfections are beautiful!” When the essence of Prime is destroyed by She-Ra, he is freed, and is soon reunited with Entrapta, who says that she is “so glad” to see him back.

By this point, it is clear that Entrapta is not the “worst kind of villain” as some described her and is more than a person who “only cares about the pursuit of knowledge,” no matter the consequences, as Brett Elderkin described her, also calling her a “mad scientist,” but rather just a morally grey character, or perhaps “chaotic neutral” to use a Dungeons and Dragons term. That brings me to a recent article by Megan Crouse in Den of Geek appropriately titled “She-Ra: In Defense of Entrapta.” She states that while Entrapta occasionally embraces the trope of not caring about “people who might be hurt when dangerous experiments go wrong,” she is much more than that, and dramatically changes in Season 5. Crouse added that Entrapta in Season 4 was not truly happy as a hermit on Beast Island, although she maintained her fascination with science, missing people, and afraid that “her friends will inevitably abandon her.” She then talks about the episode “Launch” where Entrapta’s conflict with the fellow princesses reaches a boiling point, putting others in danger, with her actions “extremely, comically risk,” wanting to win at no matter the cost. After Mermista accuses Entrapta of not caring about any of them, and not being trustworthy as a result, she responds by saying she didn’t realize they were angry at her. She then retreats to apologizing, one of her many defensive mechanisms, stating

I’m not good at people, but I am good at tech. I thought maybe if I could use tech to help you, you’d like me. But I messed that up, too.

As she barrels ahead, Mermista pulls her back by her hair (just as Horde Prime does later), and is finally convinced of her good nature when Entrapta declares “Glimmer needs us!,” indicating she is willing to put herself in harms away as much as anyone else. As Crouse further outlines, while Entrapta’s action is similar to what she has done in the past, as she begins to explain how and why she acts and feels the way she does, gaining more friends along the way. Even so, she still clearly has trouble reading people, which is not “magically cured throughout this season.” While Crouse says that it would “have been nice to see Entrapta really feel the consequences of her dangerous actions,” I would counter and say she did grow a lot in this season. On the other hand, I agree with Crouse that it is “sweeter to see her pursue science and friendship” than just tinkering with technology on Beast Island. While I can see why she argues that Entrapta is annoying, she makes a good point that Entrapta is not letting her “loner tendencies turn into complete isolation, but nor does she have to completely change who she is.” As a side note, Entrapta cuts her own bangs, as Stevenson said once, although this is terrifying considering her power tools! Yikes!

Now, lets get to the elephant in the room: Entrapta flirting with technology. The first time this happens is in the episode “Launch,” declaring flirtatiously: “Hello. You are very technologically advanced” before almost being blown to smithereens by the Horde robot. Then, in the episode “Stranded” she says: “Darla and I are going to spend some quality time together,” again in a flirtatious manner, leading to confused looks from Adora, Bow, and Glimmer. Now, robosexuality, a term seemingly coined and/or popularized by Futurama, means the “love and/or sexuality between a humanoid and a robot.” From these two interactions you could say that she is robosexual. Let us consider what Stevenson said about Entrapta: that she is learning to connect and empathize with others, and sees humanity in everything, knowing their personality and how to connect with them. One fan put Entrapta very well, remarking that she is a functional adult who can make full decisions, arguing that she is “chaotic good with a bad moral compass who likes to fuck space nazis,” saying she makes bad decisions. I can agree with that to an extent, except to say that it makes sense why she ended up working for the Horde, since the princesses had not really liked/understood her before that point. Another fan noted, correctly, that Entrapta (and Scorpia) but had to earn the trust of the princesses in their own ways.

That’s all! Comments are welcome.

© 2020-2023 Burkely Hermann. All rights reserved.


[1] In her first tweet, she responded to a fan who asked if entrapta is autistic, saying that “many of us relate to her and love her so much and it would mean a lot if we could get confirmation of her being autistic.” She responded by saying: “yes, we wrote her that way. One of our crewmembers was on the spectrum and related to her specifically, and had a huge part in shaping her story and character!” She further explained that “the crew member was board artist @Sizzlemanski. His first episode was Entrapta’s introductory episode in season 1 [System Failure] and he had a HUGE hand not only in defining her physical acting, but also pitched me several ideas for her arc early on! He basically became our go-to for Entrapta.”

[2] As Stevenson stated on Twitter, she hopes that in the future we stop thinking about LGBT representation as a “race or a contest” and as more of a “community effort to uplift voices that have not yet had their stories told,” with each individual piece of media as a “broadening of horizons.”

[3] When Noelle Stevenson was interviewed by comicbook.com, Nerdist, Gizmodo, A.V. Club, L.A. Times, Polygon, Digital Spy, GLAAD, EW, and CBR, the interviewers understandably focused on the Catra/Adora slow-burn relationship, but never asked a question about Entrapta. One interviewer for Collider asked “…So we’ve got Bow and Glimmer, we’ve got Sea Hawk and Mermista, we’ve even got kind of an interesting relationship with Entrapta and Hordak, and then obviously CatrAdora. But did you know from the beginning how everybody was going to pair off or is that something that kind of developed over time?” but she never specifically replied about the “relationship with Entrapta and Hordak.” Reviews of the show in The Mary Sue, PinkNews, LA Times, tor.com, and ScreenRant do not even mention Entrapta at all!

[4] On Instagram, Noelle Stevenson said that Entrapta would follow Hordak to Beast Island as his community services for his crimes and as a result, the “two would develop a romantic relationship and reunite with the bot she left behind in Season 4, keeping her promise to return,” so it sounds like it is leaning toward romance, as noted in a summary on her fandom page. Also see Emily Hu who noted they did board a scene with Entrapta and Hordak but it never ended up being included. There is clearly a connection between Entrapta and Hordak, but I’m still not sure if it is romantic or friendly. It could really go either way.

Steven Universe, vegetarianism, and media representation

My response to how some fans feel about Steven as a vegetarian. Cropped screencap from one of my favorite scenes from “Snow Day”

On December 23rd, “Snow Day,” the 8th episode of Steven Universe Future (herein SUF), the mini-epilogue series to cap out the Steven Universe franchise, apart from possible games, aired on Cartoon Network. Among some fans there has been  anger and annoyance with the line by one of series protagonists, Steven Universe (voiced by Zach Callison), in declaring to his friends/guardians, Pearl, Garnet, and Amethyst, that he has been a “vegetarian for, like, a month,” saying it goes against his character and is “wrong.” I’d like to defend this development, using existing canon, explain its importance in the show as a whole, and media representation of vegetarians. On this occasion, I have to laugh at that article in VegNews which claimed Pearl was a vegetarian because she is grossed out by eating and “…the only thing we see her consume is tea…[and] we’re willing to bet she’s not adding honey or milk, either.” [1] Some of these sentiments are summarized from my Reddit comments.

Let’s start with the episode itself. With that, warning of spoilers ahead for that episode if you have not seen this episode on Cartoon Network or any other platforms. As the episode begins, Steven is overworking himself, waking up early in the morning, preparing for a day full of activities to help those un-corrupted at the end of Season 5, helping them learn how to express themselves and enjoy themselves in a universe free of the repressive rule of dictators (as Steven called them in “Famiilar”), figureheads at this point. He leaves the house without breakfast, only taking a protein shake, decides to not take his novelty backpack, and drives to the school after Pearl bundles him up for the cold, saying he had “errands” to do. When he comes back that night, the Gems (Pearl, Garnet, and Amethyst) greet him, trying to cheer him up, but he rejects their entreaties, rejecting activities and foods (like a pepperoni pizza) he enjoyed in the past. The next day, he wakes up at the same time, rejects his classic meal (a “together breakfast“) as having “too much sugar,” and tries to leave his house, but the snow stops him. As such, all the classes are cancelled and he gets out his notebook to work on changes to the third-quarter schedule. Amethyst sees he is too stressed out and begins a game of Steven Tag, last featured in “Keep Beach City Weird,” a season 1 episode, when each Gem tagged becomes “classic Steven” (i.e. Steven from seasons 1-5), later joined in by all the Gems. The episode ends with Steven, after he is tagged and turns into “classic Steven” criticizing his fellow Gems not seeing him as grown up but rather a kid. They come around to this and rightly apologize to him. He wakes up the next day and travels with Garnet, Amethyst, and Pearl, riding all in the car together, Amethyst with her own protein shake!

Perhaps that summary doesn’t do the episode complete justice, but it sets the stage for the next part of my analysis: the importance of Steven becoming vegetarian (not a vegan). Steven is changing and maturing just as the world is changing, as he isn’t the same person as the one who liked shows like Dogcopter (or “pupcopter” which is one for younger children), ate meat, and used a Cheeseburger backpack, like he did in the past. People like the cute, younger Steven but he is 17 years old now and fans should treat him that way. Without a doubt, he is putting a lot of emphasis on his responsibilities and it is stressing him out. You could even say that his rejection of a lot from the past is dangerous. However, he is still making his own choices, just like every character, trying to cope with the stress, as he has “his own skin-care routine” noted by the fandom page for the episode. Steven’s development reminded me of Connie in her debut in “Bubble Buddies,” who talked about how her parents won’t let her eat donuts because they have trans fats, although there is isn’t an exact parallel of course. He seems to be cutting himself off from almost everyone, dedicating himself to his work, with Connie nor Lion making an appearance in the episode. I’ll expand on that a bit later on.

Steven’s choice goes beyond seeing the error of his past ways (being a meat-eater) or the possibility he is like “every teen” now (he isn’t). He was acting within character, as some fans reminded us of how he acted during “Warp Tour” toward the Gems (the debut of Peridot, an autistic character like Entrapta):

In snow day he just gets kind of exasperated with the gems treating him like he’s still 12, which is a totally normal way for him to feel. Part of growing up involves growing out of old interests. In the end he was happy to join them playing the new updated Steven tag and bring them with him to help do errands, and the next episode [“Why So Blue?“] had Steven being his usual happy self enjoying art and dancing and singing and stuff. So Snow Day honestly wasn’t out of character for him imho.

This refutes the claim that he is “out of character” or the supposed “manipulating fan service” that some fans claimed. For those that say its a “betrayal” of his dad or of the saying “if every porkchop were perfect, we wouldn’t have hot dogs,” because that saying is supposed to be symbolic, and he is not the same as his dad, Greg, who can do what he wants. As one fellow user put it,

Steven has always been incredibly sensitive to the welfare of other living things, and that’s only grown as he’s gotten older. Honestly, for years now I’ve been predicting that he’d become a vegetarian eventually, although I wasn’t sure if they would ever actually say so on the show.

To be fully fair, we should have seen it coming. As Leah said on Twitter, this should be a natural confusion based on all the hints in season 1 that “showed he was somewhat uncomfortable with meat.” Certain users have cited the cookout at the end of Change Your Mind, that Steven seemed to eat pepperoni pizza in “Guidance,” and other examples (like eating a hotdog in the openings to Season 1 episodes), we have to recognize that Steven has only been a vegetarian for ONE MONTH, so those examples are mute. Additionally, the time period between “Guidance” and “Snow Day” is not established, but is more than a month, as its assumed to be winter in “Snow Day” but perhaps summer or fall in “Guidance.” Some have said that Sapphire may have made it snow, but I’m not sure she has that power, unless she worked with Lapis, of course, but Lapis didn’t appear in the episode, so I don’t know about that at all. He also had only potatoes and veggies during “Rose Buds” as one user pointed out, another detail worth noting.

Some can say that the episode was “depressing to watch” or grumble about Steven supposedly “starting to become unlikable and that’s not good for your protagonist.” The latter especially is absurd because people disliked him at the beginning (and the show in general) BECAUSE Steven was annoying. As I noted elsewhere, there is no doubt that SUF has a different tone, but Steven and the Gems are trying to deal with the aftermath of their victory in “Change Your Mind,” and enforce the victory, dealing with the changes. Additionally, the Steven Universe franchise, itself, is about people changing. Not everyone stays the same and even though Steven is changing, the other Gems (Amethyst, Pearl, and Garnet) don’t see it or fully recognize it, hence offending him with Steven tag, treating him like a kid. Steven has felt they don’t completely understand him in the past, so this isn’t a new sentiment. Those that say that Steven becoming vegetarian made them “legitimately nauseous” are about as bad as the person who argued with me on Twitter last week. I rather sympathize with a fan who said that the development is on-brand for Steven, adding that:

It shows growth and maturity; it shows that he finally understands the hypocrisy of “everyone is equal” but continues to contribute to animal agriculture. I know everyone won’t agree with me, and that’s okay.

Building upon this, I would say that his switch to vegetarianism, which is a recent development in the show, is an indication, among many others, that Steven is becoming more mature and modified, although not completely different from his youthful self. As one reviewer put it, “the world strikes on and Steven is shifting with it.” Perhaps you could say he is doing a “speed run to adulthood,” but he is growing and changing, with the show striking a much more mature tone. This is understandable because has a lot of work to do to maintain the “established peace across the stars,” disbanding the “tyrannical and colonizing ways” of the Diamonds “to improve Gem life on the Gem Homeworld and Earth,” as it is an ongoing struggle in an imperfect universe.

It’s not flimsy that Steven is vegetarian, its awesome, showing a degree of maturity on his part and a representation of change in and of itself. I don’t need funny memes to tell me that either. Sure, he needs therapy, without a doubt, which is a focus of later episodes. This brings me to the most important part of this post: representation. Before this episode, some of the best representation vegetarians had in animated shows was Lisa in “The Simpsons,” still a canon vegetarian and Stan in “South Park” (not a canon vegetarian), so it should be praised that the Crewinverse and Rebecca Sugar allowed this representation in a show with great LBGTQ representation in the past, meaning that has done a good step forward. More than that, this shows “natural growth, hes becoming a teen and changing” as one user put it, and fits with his generally pacifist attitude and/or adopting the ideals of his mother who seemed to love all living things.

You could say that Steven’s line about vegetarian is a throwaway line. It’s not like Lisa Simpson who had a whole episode dedicated to her vegetarianism (“Lisa The Vegetarian“) where Lisa reaches a compromise with her father, Homer, while spending the “majority of the show being ridiculed and ostracized by her family and friends.” That leads to some songs like “you don’t win friends with salad!” chanted by Bart, Marge, and Homer. At the same time, Lisa disrupts a community event, is “saved” by vegetarians, with her belief tolerated but “for the price of no longer being a vegetarian outcast and being accommodated,” in a show that has a strong tolerance for meat eaters. You could say that Lisa’s moral outrage is muzzled. In fact, if we use Frinkiac as a measurement, the only other episodes that even mention the word “vegetarian” are in Homer’s Phobia (in passing), Blame It On Lisa (Homer tries to convince Lisa to cheat on vegetarianism), Grade School Confidential (Bart threatens her with violating her values), Lisa’s Wedding (a vision of the future), and jokingly elsewhere. This is still often cited as an example of representation in media of vegetarianism and veganism. [2] I think the one critic who noted that while it seems to be preachy, it is “overflowing with great individual scenes: the opening trip to Storytown Village; Lisa’s revelatory moment at the dinner table” with the Meat Council propaganda video as “the funniest isolated segment in the history of the show”:

The fact that Steven is a vegetarian now is positive and fits with existing canon. Its really about damn time for this development, even if it is, ultimately, “pretty insignificant” in the show itself. Likely Steven will be like Mr. Peppy in Futurama: he’ll be vegetarian but not “preachy about it.” Nevertheless, it is worth highlighting, in part because it puts Steven among other noteworthy vegetarian cartoon characters like Tish Katsufrakis in The Weekenders and Aang in Avatar: The Last Airbender, the latter compared to Steven. [3] While it’s hard to say that someone like Marceline the Vampire Queen in Adventure Time is vegetarian, we could easily assume that Perfuma, the hippy princess in She-Ra and the Princesses of Power, is vegetarian, and maybe even Lapis and Peridot in Steven Universe, if they eat food at all, like in my fan fics, lol. Of course, that’s just speculation. On an additional level, this is important due to the “pattern of vegetarians making people uncomfortable in the media” (indicated by annoyance from some parts of the SU fanbase in response in “Snow Day”), along with common “negative representation of vegetarians and vegans in the media.” This episode counters that sentiment on its head. I am reminded of But I’m a Cheerleader, a great film if you haven’t seen it already where the emissary of the conversion therapy camp, “True Directions,” Mike, declares that vegetarianism is a “homosexual tendency.” It’s so absurd I have to laugh.

The fact Steven is a vegetarian is not only confirmed by further developments, like Steven eating a cheese pizza at the end of “Prickly Pair,” but fits with two episodes which aired on December 28, the last two SUF episodes before the beginning of the hiatus, likely less than previous hiatuses in 2019, which was, by far, “CN’s most sparse release schedule for the show as they released the show in three chunks with massive hiatuses in between” as one fan noted in their statistical analysis of the show. We are all, clearly, being Spinel’d, but that’s beside the point, lol. There has been a lot of chatter about these episodes. The first of these, “Little Graduation,” begins with Steven looking happy and overjoyed, a good sign to see due to everything he is been through. But this doesn’t last long: he is quickly depressed by the fact that his friends Sadie and Lars are not together as he had imagined in his mind (he was literally shipping them, like a sizable portion of the fanbase), with Sadie now dating a non-binary individual named Shep (which would may make Sadie pansexual or queer), voiced by Indya Moore, Lars & the Off Colors are going back to space, and sadly…Sadie Killer & the Suspects are breaking up! [4] The latter development is no surprise, however, as Buck Dewey predicted this in “The Big Show” where he said that their rise to stardom will be “followed by the inevitable infighting and creative disagreements that will tear us apart in a beautiful explosion of emotions,” which Greg dismissed as hogwash. It didn’t pan out exactly this way but, the band still broke apart nonetheless. Anyway, in “Little Graduation,” Steven’s emotions get the better of him and he almost kills everyone by suffocation, turning into Pink Steven, including the new graduates with a rose-colored dome, which is only stopped when Shep tells Steven that he needs to figure himself out and give his friends space to grow rather than suffocating them (literally). Symbolically the dome represents, as one fan put it, “Steven’s inner perceptions of reality” since he has always worked hard for his friends, but now his friends are growing up without help from him (and moving on), as he feels neglected, combined with abrasive feelings he has toward his mom along with his own problems. And the toxicity bubbles up into a dome itself.

This episode was one of the best so far, as Steven realizes that not only does the world not revolve around him, but things happen when he isn’t there. At one point, he asks when Lars and Sadie talked, declaring angrily, “but when did this happen? I didn’t see any of this!” to which the response is that it was private, which makes sense. This also pokes at the fact that the show is, basically, all from Steven’s perspective. I think the parallels between Lars leaving Steven and Pink leaving Spinel behind is a good one, which portends problems in the future without a doubt! Anyway, after freeing them and everyone departing, the episode ends as he contemplates by himself, in a scene reminiscent of the ending of “Mother Simpson” as AwestruckVox pointed out in his analysis on The Roundtable. In the latter, Homer sits and pensively stargazes, realizing that “Homer’s long-lost mother may disappear again, but he learns that she loves him, and that’s enough,” with the ending serving as “a model of restraint and a signal to start crying…[and] a sobering reminder of how powerful silence can be.”

The focus on Steven’s issues is continued in “Prickly Pair,” where Steven uses his new hobby, planting, as a form of therapy, connecting with his love of nature and life (another reason he is vegetarian). The Gems see this as clearly unhealthy, as he is naming plants after his friends likely a reference to the “stress free environment” (see up to 1:04 in the video above) created by Billy Rosewood (played by Judge Reinhold) in Beverly Hills Cop 2, and give him space, as he thinks he can solve all these problems himself, bumping through his teen years. This doesn’t work out, ultimately, as he forms a cactus monster who he treated like a therapist, which hurts his friends (or guardians as you could call them), Amethyst, Garnet, and Pearl, not only physically but emotionally as the monster blurts out his personal feelings about them. While the cactus monster, which Amethyst names Cactus Steven, leaves his house, blowing off the front face of it, similar to the damage it sustained during the battle with Blue Diamond in “Reunited,” Steven is clearly in emotionally (and mentally) rocky state by the end of the episode. You could even say that Steven and Cactus Steven represent part of the cycles of abuse. The absence of his father, Greg, his girlfriend, Connie (I hope they don’t break up), and others, is disturbing enough, as the feeling he can’t talk to anyone about problems, likely suffering from depression and other mental problems. [5]

“Little Graduation” and “Prickly Pair” sets up an interesting set of episodes ahead, even if you think SUF isn’t “kid-friendly” anymore (as the fan base is growing up) as Steven will have to come to a more balanced state of mind and body (as he is acting a bit contradictory right now) working out his serious problems, making it possible for him to control his new powers, realizing that he should change, just as everyone else is changing, something he hasn’t completely done yet. This would be much better than forcing others to not change, which is not healthy at all! Whether he talks the Diamonds about this (oh no) or his “uncle” Andy, or someone else about his problems is anyone’s guess. [6] This is nothing new as he had similar struggles as shown in episodes like “Mindful Education,” and other times before that, but the fact that he has the power to hurt others is scary, so I’m excited to see what future SUF episodes will bring. Perhaps Steven should take the advice he told Lars back in Season 5 to heart, although he may not.

© 2019-2023 Burkely Hermann. All rights reserved.


[1] At the same time, however, the article listed racial stereotype Apu in The Simpsons, Bobby in King of the Hill, Velma Dinkley in Scooby-Doo, Draculaura in Monster High, Doug Funnie from Doug, Heffer in Rocko’s Modern Life; Dil, Chuckie, and Susie in Rugrats, Pac-Man, Eliza Thornberry in The Wild Thornberrys, Popeye, as some of the greatest “vegan cartoon characters.” So, he got Pearl wrong, but perhaps he got these others right.

[2] Allyson Koerner, for instance, lists Lisa along with Monroe in Grimm, Phoebe Buffay in Friends, Angela Martin in The Office, Sara Sidle in CSI, and Temperance Brennan in Bones. Others list Hazel Grace Lancaster in The Fault in Our Stars, Rachel Berry in Glee, Phoebe Buffay in Friends, Angela Martin in The Office, Elle Woods in Legally Blonde, Britta Perry in Community, Phoebe Halliwell in Charmed, Topanga Lawrence in Boy Meets World, and Todd Ingram in Scott Pilgrim Vs. The World, alongside Lisa as vegan/vegetarian characters. Kristen Martin, on the other hand, notes five fictional vegetarians who “defy stereotypes” while Jamie Gerber explains various superheroes and villains who are vegetarian (Todd Ingram, Damian Wayne, Iron Fist, Connor Hawke, Bruce Banner, Magneto, Zatanna, Scarlet Witch, Superman, Kitty Pryde, Ozymandias, Beast Boy, Karolina Dean, Animal Man, and Wonder Woman).

[3] Some on My Anime List have claimed that Rei Ayanami in Evangelion, Taikoubou from Houshin Engi, herbivores in Monster Musume, a vegetarian elf in Isekai Shokudou, Nadia in Fushigi no Umi no Nadia, characters in Nichibros, Denpa Onna, Kemono Friends, Happy Happy Clover, Hamtaro, and Shirokuma Cafe, the latter three only if animal characters count, along with the Circumstances of a Vegetarian Child Wherewolf.

[4] Some fans adored Shep and loved the representation, while others didn’t get their gender and thought Shep was transgender (there’s no indication that is true), or hated Shep for some reason, the latter falling into the category of “annoying fans.”

[5] I think its worth quoting the psychological analysis of Steven by one fan here, as it says more than I could put forward:

What is happening to Steven right now is a consequence of three situations:

-Being a half gem.

-Being adolescent.

-Trying to carry the weight of other people problems in your back

Why you ask? in adolescence, you try to wonder who you are, what you want to be in the future. And sometimes that bring negative emotions like angriness and confusion.

Before Steven Universe Future, his reason to be was to be a hero, helping others. Now, that reason is partly gone because the worst part of the conflict is over, and even when he still wants to help people, he looks at the lifes of other humans and starts to wonder what else could be.

Thats it because as a crystal gem, fighting and helping comes as something natural; and in the context of their long life spans this objective doesnt seems to change much. In the counterpart, humans tend to change life perspective more frequently because we live less, and our fragility doesnt makes us want to fight intergalactic conflicts (instead, we choose to share with others, get jobs, and try to enjoy life).

In the initial part of the show, things seems “inverted” because humans gave Steven a sense of continuity (“i want this to stay the same”), and gems a sense of something that needs to be changed (“i want this to be different”). When we reach SUF, humans are changing and gems are remaining the same (mainly enemies), so Steven starts to be greatly frustrated.

He doesnt wants to recognize this, clearly, because he is the person that “helps”, not the one that needs to be helped (that would mean he is a burden to others). So, his emotions (anger and confussion, normal for adolescence) start to emerge as unstable powers, which causes a mayhem so big that Steven has to begin to recognize his emotions.

PD: So…if you have superpowers and feel like this…go therapy.

[6] Some fans hope Steven lies on a bed at the end of the series and talks to a therapist, while others just say he needs “serious therapy.”


I am so glad to get one positive comment on /r/stevenuniverse, which makes me smile. I am glad to see it.

Autistic Entrapta, the perils of dataist thinking, and fan fictions

A screenshot from Entrapta’s debut in “System Failure,” s1 of She-Ra and the Princesses of Power, the first time we see her in that episode.

Recently, I read a thought-provoking article by Bohyun Kim in Information Today, which I mentioned in my recent newsletter, where she talked about “data-ism.” She defined this term as data replacing our thinking to validate or invalidate a hypothesis, with data and algorithms seen as “a superior means to process data” and find meaning in it, as compared to human thoughts. She added that such a concept is enabled not by a particular technology but by a “specific group of people who will benefit from implementing data-ism society-wide at the cost of others outside that group” like those behind Facebook and Google. This brings me to She-Ra and the Princesses of Power where one character embodies this ideal above anyone else: Entrapta. You could say she is a dataist, pure and simple. However, she may not fully fall into this category as she has her own thoughts and experiences, like when she tries to stop the portal from opening or her decision to join Bow, Adora, and the other heroes. Admittedly, she is one of my favorite characters, correctly described as autistic by the show’s existing fandom, even having a tag on Archive of Our Own: “Autistic Entrapta.” [1] After all, she is autistic as noted on a leaked character sheet for the show itself. This is part of the reason she was included in fan fictions of a person I know, as noted later within this post.

I must warn you, for those who haven’t finished Season 4 of She-Ra and the Princesses of Power, that there are some spoilers, not only for that season but for the whole show. Long story short, Entrapta is a princess with prehensile hair who is a scientist and inventor always trying to tinker with ancient technology. A number of her experiments go terribly wrong, like the creation of murderous robots in “System Failure” (her debut in the series). She is originally portrayed as deep into her work and about experimenting with ancient technology (“First Ones tech”). In a later episode, she is unintentionally stranded in the Fright Zone, in “No Princess Left Behind“, the aftermath of the kidnapping in “Princess Prom.” This is where the villains, known as the Horde, have their home base. She later joins them in “The Beacon.”

This episode is why some, like Ana Mardoll, say there are “problems” with Entrapta. She argued, back in December 2018, that it is hurtful that the one neurodiverse (ND) team mate turned evil because she is supposedly “too much of a reckless fool to realize that evil is bad.” They further state that she is, in their view, a “collection of parodies and stereotypes about ND people being foolish and easily confused and laughably simple to lie to.” She also argues that Entrapta’s so-called “fall to evil” frustrates them because the show gives Catra complex reasons for why she stayed with the Horde and claims that Entrapta plays off “abelist assumptions” about ND people. While I can understand this perspective, it is clearly misguided. She is a character who is undoubtedly autistic, but also sweet and an “underappreciated technowizard.” The latter is key. Even though she joins the Rebellion, serving as part of the Princess Alliance, after “System Failure,” this is short-lived. Remember how Glimmer reacts to her in that debut episode: very negatively, often grumbling and sighing, only wanting Entrapta to join them in order to impress her mom and get the Rebellion “cool junk” to defeat the Horde. The fact that her and Adora both make fun of Bow for his pretty cool “trick arrows” says something about how they feel about Entrapta. What Glimmer declares, along with acting occasionally aggressive toward her does not bode well. The only person who sympathizes with her is Bow, saying:

She’s a brilliant inventor. She makes robots and rehabs old tech left by the First Ones. She’s a pretty big deal in the Etherian Makers Community…I bet Entrapta will like my arrows…Entrapta has traps set up all over her castle. They’re supposed to be really cool…Big fan of your work, princess. Maybe not this, but your other work.

He says the last two lines after he bows to her. She gladly accepts his praise, chuckling and saying “hi,” and he then kisses some of her prehensile hair courteously after she extends it to shake hands with him. The screenshot from that episode, showing her reaction is below:

She is pretty friendly and nice to Glimmer and Adora throughout the episode, even wanting a “date” with Glimmer to discuss how teleportation works. She even offers to give up her leg to save them from the murderous robots. As such, I’m not sure how people can call her “un-sympathetic.” After all, all of them, plus the kitchen staff, work together to take down the virus from the infected First Ones disk, with Bow and Entrapta working together. Not surprisingly, she, of course, puts the disk together again at the end of the episode.

Her only other appearances, before she joins the Horde in “The Beacon” are “Princess Prom” and “No Princess Left Behind.” In the first of these episodes, Entrapta comes to the prom, happily greeting Adora and Glimmer, asking if they are there for the “social experiment” where, as she describes it,

Different groups are forced to mingle. Hierarchies form and break. It’s the perfect place to observe behavior. And they have tiny food.

She pries a bit into Glimmer’s emotional uneasiness in the episode, making her annoyed with Entrapta, while Mermista doesn’t want to involve herself in that or in Entrapta’s observations. With all this excitement, Entrapta calls it “the best social experiment ever.” After all, she is a person who “loves science and refer[s]…to parties as “social experiments” while standing off to one side,” having trouble making friends. Later on, in the evening, Adora remains protective of her, with Catra helping her get a better vantage point. It is then that Entrapta and Catra become a bit friendly. She calls Catra her new “assistant…[who] brought snacks,” with Catra saying she stole her food, and asked Catra to spy on the crowd with her. She teases Adora with the idea this is “love,” who pulls Entrapta aside, reminding her of the allegiances she has agreed to:

Entrapta, she’s from the Horde. The people the Rebellion are fighting? The Rebellion you’re a part of.

Some say that she feels a bit oblivious, but perhaps perhaps her heart isn’t into the Rebellion. After all, who, other than Bow, has actually treated her with respect? Even Adora is pretty forceful with her. Add to this what happens in “No Princess Left Behind”: Entrapta goes with Sea Hawk, Mermista, Perfuma, and Frosta to rescue Glimmer and Bow. She becomes enamored and enchanted with Horde technology, even re-programming a Horde bot she names “Emily,” later shown in the episode, “Promise.” Even the patience of Perfuma is tested by Entrapta, while Mermista is a bit annoyed as well. Still, they all feel awful when they think Entrapta is killed in a blast during their escape. That brings us to “The Beacon.” Mardoll is saying that Entrapta is a “reckless fool” for not realizing that the Horde is “bad” and that she is taken in by Catra’s lies. But is this really totally the case? Catra already had a rapport with Entrapta after Princess Prom, so iThey already know each other to an extent. Even Scorpia knew who she was. As she told them, their cuffs weren’t holding her. She stayed there as her choice. On the one hand you could say that Catra tapped into Entrapta’s insecurities. On the other, no one, apart from Bow, treated her with respect when she was part of the Princess Alliance. They all tried to use her. Of course, the Horde also wanted to use her too, but I doubt she is naive to such an extent that she does not recognize what the Horde is doing to the planet.

Rather, as Beth Elderkin pointed out, it isn’t clear whether she even knows she defected, or if she even cares what side she is on. This is clear in the “Ties That Bind” when she tentatively says she is on the side of the Horde, only after Glimmer asks her “Entrapta, are you on the Horde’s side?”. Here’s her full response to that question:

I’m on the side of science. But I am living at the Fright Zone now and the Horde is supplying me with tools and materials for my work. So, yes, I guess?

Rather, she only cares about the pursuit of knowledge, with people around her “only worth the data they [can] provide.” As a result, she is often undergoing dangerous experiments, taking notes, and “making hypotheses based on the results.” This means she is person with clear “moral ambiguity” but seems to not even care about what the Horde is doing to the planet as a whole. Catra, to quote again from Elderkin, serves as a “listening ear” to Entrapta, showing her new technology and giving her free reign. This allows her to hack the planet, with her restraints gone, beginning in “Light Hope,” while ignoring the signs that Catra plans to use her technology to hurt millions, possibly because she doesn’t care. The same could be said for the fact that her experiment almost destroys the world but is reversed thanks to the combined power of the princesses in the Season 1 finale, “The Battle of Bright Moon.”

Mardoll also quotes from Abigail Nussbaum, who writes another criticism in “The Problem of Entrapta“, claiming that Entrapta is “the embodiment of the idea that you can’t trust mentally ill and ND people with guns or power or being president or whatever,” or that it is “impossible to “redeem” Entrapta with a reveal.” Rather, she argues that Entrapta “has to face her actions and atone,” while further claiming she is “being written in a way which seems to suggest that autistic folks lack that capability to self assess.” She even claims that “the overall collection of her personality traits has a high correlation to us [ND people], so the portrayal of her fall to villainy needed to be handled with care–and it wasn’t.” She further declares that Entrapta “was turned through a combination of being profoundly foolish and utterly lacking any empathy: two harmful stereotypes about ND folks.” This is an incorrect reading of her character. To bring in Elderkin again, clearly Entrapta is naive, but she is also adorable, and is “so disconnected from the world’s problems that she doesn’t even know she’s a villain,” making her a true “morally grey character.” To say she is foolish is silly. She could have left the Fright Zone at ANY TIME. But, she did not. Why? She has a “cheerfully wobbly moral compass” and more importantly a “Oppenheimer-like joy of discovery” above any ethical choices. This is a reality that neither Mardoll nor Nussbaum can recognize. Surely, she doesn’t fully recognize that her experiments are “not just hypothetical ideas, but real things that affect real people” to quote from Elderkin. But that doesn’t make her a bad person.

What about those that say she “often exemplifies the clinically un-empathetic autistic stereotype”? This belief tied with the claim that she is “evil by lack of “theory of mind”” is incorrect. While I agree that it would be great if she could “grapple more with morality, manipulation, and pursuing obsession” and have more of “her emotional and compassionate empathy…revealed to the audience,” she does express emotions in relation to Emily, a robot she had modded out of a Horde robot, to help her with her work, just like those robots she modded out as war machines in “The Frozen Forest.” Without a doubt, she is blindly dedicated to research, no matter the cost, and undoubtedly has social anxiety. Even so, she finds humanity in the villainous Hordak, working with him to build an inter-dimensional portal, starting in “Signals.” After seeing him break down with weakness, she creates an armored suit for him, allowing them to become friends, beginning in “Huntara.” This suit is later damaged by Catra in the most recent season as a way of manipulating him to do what she wants.

It is evident that Entrapta believes that her data and calculations will give her the method to discover the “answers,” no matter the cost. Take what she said in “White Out” as an example of this mentality:

Entrapta’s observation, in response to Catra telling them they need to leave, is correct

With that all being said, I would not say she is “un-empathetic” or that she does not have agency. She willingly stays with the Horde, a decision that the princesses respect in “Ties that Bind” and “The Signal,” although they disagree with it. That’s at least how I’ve always seen it. She even sticks up for Catra and is able to convince Hordak she is valuable, which leads him to send her to the Crimson Waste to get a specific artifact in “The Price of Power.” You could claim she doesn’t listen to Adora trying to talk sense to her, telling her to not use the Sword of Protection to open the portal in “Moment of Truth,” but she does actually take into account what Adora is telling her. And after doing some tests, she realizes that Adora is right! Sure, she trusts the data, but she uses it with her own thoughts and analysis, making it a bit different from her typical dataist thinking. In same episode, she has a revelation that shows this to be the case: the anomalies of the portal will be “catastrophic,” unhinging time and space, “creating a warped reality that would collapse in on itself, erasing us from existence.” She tries to warn Catra about this, saying she has to tell Hordak, but she angrily zaps her with a stun gun, ordering Scopria to send her to Beast Island, which she reluctantly complies with. Catra then lies to Hordak, claiming Entrapta was on the side of the princesses all along, and he does not discover this lie until the end of Season 4. As this season comes to a close, Catra opens the portal and almost destroys the whole world, as recounted in “Remember” and “The Portal,” with Adora barely saving the day. Apart from Angella’s sacrifice, the latter is partly thanks to the help of Entrapta in the bizarre alt-Etheria world, who helps them, to an extent, fix reality in the best way she can. At the same time, she has compassion, saying to Adora at one point: “it was nice being friends with you” as she fades away from existence, at least in this bizarre world.

For much of Season 4, she doesn’t make an appearance, with Scorpia concerned about her, as shown in “The Coronation,” while Catra angrily wants her recordings, noted in “Princess Scorpia.” Almost, as a sort of payback, Entrapta, along with Adora, is one of those people who haunts Catra in her dreams in “Flutterina.” In a later episode, “Beast Island,” Adora describes Entrapta as having “purple hair and really likes robots. Like, really, really likes robots,” and they discover she is still alive. She is said to be heading for the center of the island, and when it seems all hope is lost, she literally saves them (Bow, Swift Wind, Micah, and Adora/She-Ra). So much for saying she doesn’t have compassion. Here’s what she says after she rescues them, with a smile on her face:

In the following episode, “Destiny Part 1,” her life on the island is explored a bit more. Clearly, she is overjoyed that the island is full of “technological monstrosities,” calling it “paradise,” glad to help them learn about the heart of Etheria. She brings them to an ancient temple, calling it “amazing,” saying the answers she is looking for are there, pulling up a directory of various files. She reveals to them that all the princesses are part of the Heart of Etheria project, with She-Ra as the key, channeling the weapon, with the First Ones using the sword to control and use her. Adora learns she doesn’t get to refuse this task, to her horror, and Entrapta wants to stay on the island, no matter what:

Bow and Adora are able to pull her away from this, although she struggles thoroughly and claims that no one understands her, which is partially true, based on her past experience with the Princesses and the Horde. As it seems she will be engulfed by the vines, Bow talks to her about friendship and then, Adora, as She-Ra mentions they came on a ship with ancient technology. This pulls her out of her funk, although she admits that Bow’s talk didn’t affect her. Despite this, she is glad that her and Bow are friends. This means that Entrapta goes with them back to Bright Moon because of data and scientific discovery, not because of friendship or anything else. In many ways, her character subverts the Entrapta from the original She-Ra series whom is a “villainous technician…a skilled inventor, and is credited with designing advanced equipment for The Horde…[and] her speciality is devising different traps for members of The Rebellion.” She also can “design and create complex machines and inventions to be used by The Horde….mentally control her long hair at will…[using it[…to capture enemies or to control her various machines.”

In some ways, her character reminds me of Peridot in Steven Universe, even more than Spinel (who also struggles with friendship), as there are a lot of parallels. For one, both characters have, at first, a love or attachment to their robots, rather than people or other beings. Entrapta has her robotic servants, and later Emily, while Peri has her robonoids, which Steven says are “like her babies” in her debut in “Warp Tour,” and adeptly uses technology as shown in “Marble Madness.” Later she works with Jasper, treating Lapis as an informant (and prisoner) as noted in “The Return” and “Jail Break.” However, her plans revealed in “Keeping Together,” and she is injured by the Crystal Gems in “Friend Ship,”  is poofed by them in “Catch and Release.” Due to a friendship with Steven, she grows in the coming episodes, becoming more aquainted with Earth culture, helps them build a drill to the center of the Earth, and begins to respect other beings more (“When It Rains“, “Back to the Barn“, “Too Far“, “Steven’s Birthday” (non-speaking), “It Could’ve Been Great“, “Message Received“, and “Log Date 7 15 2“, “Super Watermelon Island“, “Gem Drill“, and “Same Old World“).

She thinks about the Gem plans for Earth just like Entrapta does about her inventions, as shown in “It Could’ve Been Great” and “Message Received,” but these types of thoughts change. She learns how to be better with people, strikes up a relationship with a water gem, Lapis Lazuli, another one of my favorite characters, apart from Peri. Both are skeptical of each other in “Barn Mates” but later get more acquainted after “Hit the Diamond” and in other episodes (referenced in “Too Short to Ride“, “Beta“, “Earthlings“, and “Back to the Moon“). As the show’s episodes continue, she becomes more comfortable with herself and her connections to other beings (and people) (as shown in “Kindergarten Kid“, “Gem Harvest“, “Adventures in Light Distortion“, “The New Crystal Gems“, and “Room for Ruby“), although she is not as adept at social situations. For instance, it is revealed she lied to Lapis so she’d feel better (in “Raising the Barn“) and she begins to suffer depression (beginning in “Back to the Kindergarten“) after Lapis leaves Earth. She makes such an impression on Lapis, that this water gem references her as part of her song in “Can’t Go Back“. Apart from handing out flowers at Ruby and Sapphire’s wedding in “Made of Honor“, the first gay wedding in a commercial cartoon, embrace each other in “Reunited“. Both her and Lapis help the fellow Gems fight the Diamonds in “Change Your Mind“. And of course, she appears in the recent Steven Universe movie, having a vital role there, determining the injector fluid with her robonoids and technology.

There is one major difference between Peri and Entrapta. Unlike Peri, Entrapta has not opened up to others in the same way. But this is not surprising, due to the fact she was in environments where people either felt displeased about her (among the princesses) or exploited her skills (among the Horde). When she appears in the season finale, “Destiny Part 2,” there’s nothing she nor Adora can do to stop Light Hope’s plan, at least at first. Hordak learns about Catra’s lies about Entrapta and attempts to kill Catra with his laser canon arm. In this episode, Entrapta only gets a few lines, but they are important ones, for the story. For instance, when talking to Bow, who asks what is happening, she says, “it’s a portal. A big portal. With the planet balanced, the portal capabilities must be back online. We’re getting pulled through.” A screenshot from that scene shown below, indicating she is a bit excited about what will happen next:

She tries to be optimistic, noting they aren’t in Despondos but are in the “wider universe” now. Adora is able to stop Light Hope’s genocidal plans but cannot stop the arrival of Horde Prime with a huge fleet of warships. She-Ra is destroyed, Adora thinks, because the sword is gone. These events, sets the stage for the next undoubtedly eventful season…

That leads me to the second section of this post.

Building upon Entrapta’s “dataism” within my friend’s fan fictions

A screenshot from her debut episode

Entrapta is mentioned in one of my friend’s first stories, where Queen Angella laments to Samurai Jack about Entrapta working for the Horde:

Entrapta would be the perfect person to help you with constructing such a device, but…she is now working with the Horde, bringing her technology genius and inventor abilities to the side of evil…Our spies inside the Horde have indicated that the Supreme Leader of the Horde, Lord Hordak, is building a portal, likely with the help of Entrapta.

This friend built out her character more when Adora, Glimmer, Bow, and Jack go to the Crystal Castle, with Light Hope able to see Entrapta’s thoughts, as she worked with Entrapta to improve a portal which surprised Adora, asking herself why she was “working to turn the lightness of the world into darkness” and wondering if she had a “conscience of her own” or not. It also is part of the reason she breaks down later in the same story. In a story later on, characters suspect she helped hack into Light Hope, and she ends up being one of those who wants to shroud the planet in darkness, working with Hordak. This friend described her “almost slavish dedication to “science” no matter how much it hurt the planet,” and noted the “evil look in her magneta-colored eyes as her prehensile lilac hair quickly tapped on the keyboard,” as she said:

“Progress is going great! Our hack of Light Hope was a success…and the crumpling of that crystalline structure means it will be so much easier to get First One’s tech for our machines. The Rebellion will think it’s gone and done for, allowing us to go in without a trace. Now, if we could hack into all the runestones, perhaps we could even track the princesses…this…I must say…is all so exciting!”

Catra and Entrapta interact, I believe in episode, ‘The Frozen Forest.’ This is likely what she would have looked like as she typed onto that keyboard in my friend’s fan fic

In the same story, Hordak praised her on the progress she had made. At one point, with only one Horde robot created by her remaining near the Crystal Castle, Bow directly addresses her:

Entrapta, someday you’ll regret all this and realize the destruction you have caused to this planet…what you are doing is wrong…it’s not for science, as you may think, it’s for evil. I hope you change your mind.

Despite this, his words don’t move her and she rigged the remaining robot to explode, which happened in “Frozen Forest.” Later, Entrapta greets Samurai Jack “with a friendly, and warm, smile,” and is very fascinated by his desire to travel back in time and across dimensions. Sadly, Jack isn’t moved by the pleas of his friends, and he accurately saw:

a 30-year-old woman who was kind, but lonely, having a positive outlook on life, and dedicated to pursuing knowledge and discovery through her experiments and research. It filled him with joy to meet someone thrilled with learning new information, although she seemed a bit obsessive in this process. Even so, he could see that such dedication would lead to a disregard of morality, meaning she would not recognize that her work could hurt others. In a thundering voice, he told the rest of them his intentions and why he had come there.

He then defends Entrapta, although she warned him not to use the portal due to the possibility of error. Even so, she feels obligated to help him despite “her reservations about the safety of the portal itself” and he travels across dimensions, although not to the world he wanted. Ultimately, there is nothing she can do other than “shutting down the whole portal.”

Entrapta has a breakthrough with Hordak in the “Signals” episode.

Apart from that, my friend talked more about her as a person in other stories, fleshing her out as a character:

The fact that Entrapta didn’t pick up their magical signatures, on her computer, had been a miracle. It was a happy coincidence she had been in a deep sleep. She needed rest, especially since she had an older age than many of the princesses, who were in their teens, having lived and breathed for 30 years on the planet…Preparing to attack them with her prehensile hair, Adora stunned her with a regulation stun gun which she had taken from a Horde soldier…Although she was in a daze, she could hear Pearl and Adora utter a few stern words, “Entrapta…it’s time to talk,” while the others surrounded her in a semi-circle. The time for reckoning was at hand

She then serves as a major part of my friend’s story that served as the capstone of part 1 of my friend’s “An Unlikely Alliance Against Evildoers” series. She asked why they had stunned her, and the heroes, including Glimmer, reminded her of the “scientific experiments she had conducted which “caused the destabilization of Etheria, almost killing them in the process.” After Hordak’s death devastated her she opened the portal, wanting to join the ultimate Horde leader, but she relented. In the same story, she had a self-revelation to everyone:

My god, you must think I am a monster. I can understand why you are angry at me. I only wanted to conduct scientific experiments, collect data, and test the boundaries of thought. I never wanted to hurt anyone. But, in the process, I blindly charged ahead, not thinking of how my actions would affect other people. I am sorry and I ask for your forgiveness

With this, some, like Perfuma, wanted to forgive her, while others wanted her to “pay penance for what she had done.” She did this by helping them begin dehordeification, starting with the Fright Zone’s destruction (which happened thanks to her “ingenious implosion”) after her materials had been moved back to her castle in Dyrl. Later, she talks with Peridot and works to “ensure that the new archives would have the appropriate technology,” even though she would also have a trial. She also had a minor mention in my friend’s recent story with Glimmer noting she is “awaiting trial,” although my friend didn’t give any more details at this point. Undoubtedly, she will come up in some of my friend’s future stories.

That’s all I have for today. Until next week! Comments are welcome.

© 2019-2023 Burkely Hermann. All rights reserved.


[1] The Wikipedia page describes her as “the Evil Horde‘s chief technician…a skilled inventor…credited with designing advanced equipment for The Horde…[and has a] scientific and fact-based nature, and quickly warmed up to Catra and Hordak, with whom she forms an emotional relationship.” Other fans have speculated she was written with Aspergers Syndrome in mind or think it is highly evident without a doubt (see here, here, here, and here for example), even noted on TV Tropes.


After posting this article on the She-Ra subreddit, I got some great comments on there I’d like to share here:

Super interesting to skim through. I think we tend to downplay the seemingly unattractive aspects of autism. Particularly the very data-driven robot meets interpersonal simpleton characterization. As an autistic woman in her 30s with a historical attraction to much older, evil men (ahem), myself, its defense often comes off as an attempt to soften those characteristics in order to make them more palatable to NTs. When in reality, many of the characterizations were misinterpretations of the autistic experience in the first place. Thank you for the analysis!- esjunsia

This was a really interesting read! Thank you for sharing! Entrapta is one of my favourite characters too and I agree with everything you said. The criticism you countered, that ‘it is hurtful that the one neurodiverse (ND) team mate turned evil because she is supposedly “too much of a reckless fool to realize that evil is bad”‘ – while I can kind of see where they’re coming from, I agree with you that it’s not entirely fair, not just for the reasons you mentioned but also because what evidence do they have that Entrapta even is “the one neurodiverse team mate”? I don’t see any reason to assume that. I’m neurodivergent too, but I actually recognise more of my own autistic traits in Adora. This post I found on tumblr explores that extremely well and I would definitely recommend reading it if you’re interested! – zutarakorrasami

I really hate everyone saying ‘oh she wanted Knowledge’ like her entire motivation for joining the Horde wasn’t believing her friends abandoned her – nor-fuck-pines

“He defined this term as data replacing our thinking to validate or invalidate a hypothesis, with data and algorithms seen as “a superior means to process data” and find meaning in it, as compared to human thoughts.” I’m on that field. No, noboby [sic] with a basic understading [sic] of statistics and/or pratical experience with data based analysis believes that. Some evangelists and vendors say that, but it’s because we need clients/funding. Human analysis still is the best by a huge margin – FellowOfHorses

I don’t know why autistic Perfuma hasn’t caught on. – Tropical-Rainforest

That’s all for now.

© 2019-2023 Burkely Hermann. All rights reserved.

The erasure of records, digitization, and 1990s Hollywood films

Gif of one of the scenes from Hackers (1995)

In the past week, I’ve watched a number of 1990s Hollywood films, such as Sneakers (1992), Hackers (1995), The Net (1995), and My Fellow Americans (1996), where the “everything’s on the computer” state of records, as stated in passing in The Andromeda Strain (1971), has been reached. All of these films share a similar theme: the erasure and change of records (mostly digital), which has an increased relevance as archival institutions continue to digitize more and more of their records, although not everything, as I noted in my post about challenges of archival digitization in late April.

Looking at the 1990s films

Let’s start with The Net, since it was the first of these films that I watched, computer with bulky hand-held phones and dial-up computers. In this film, Sandra Bullock plays an isolated middle-age White woman (Angela Bassett) who is a “program systems analyst from Los Angeles” who lives most of her life online, talking on chat rooms and ordering pizza. That all changes when she takes a trip to Cessna (before which there is a computer malfunction which screws with flights), Mexico, meets a man who basically seduces her in order to get control of a virus which is on a floppy disk, of all things. This plan fails, however, as she realizes, after literally sleeping with him for some reason, that he wants to kill her, so she gets away in a dingy that crashes on rocks, knocking her unconscious. She wakes up three days later in a hospital and the disk has been destroyed. As she is about to go back into the country, after a record was changed that checked her out of the hotel, she is told to sign a temporary visa document which states that her name is Ruth Marx.

As the movie goes from here, she realizes that her identity has been stolen by an imposter, with the change of records by the villains who want to make profits off their security technology and gain access  to every system possible. With this, the movie is a bit of warning that it is very easy for someone to be digitally erased with so much of our lives online, with which you don’t even have to spoil the ending. Clearly there are inept secondary characters (police officers, nurses, and jailers), many of whom, like sole archivist Madame Nu in Attack of the Clones think that records are inviolable and cannot be changed. The partially inept villains are even able to kill a few people, like the  Undersecretary of Defense by falsifying a report saying he has AIDS and a friend of Bullock’s character. At one point, she says that “our whole lives are on the computer, and they knew that I could be vanished. They knew that nobody would care and it wouldn’t matter.” Later she adds to the inept court-appointed lawyer, who believes in the inviolability of the records in that they cannot be tampered with, to defend her from false charges:

Just think about it. Our whole world is sitting there on a computer. It’s in the computer. Everything. Your DMV records, your Social Security… your credit cards, your medical history. It’s all right there. Everyone is stored. And there’s this little electronic shadow on each of us… just begging for somebody to screw with. They’ve done it to me, and they’re gonna do it to you…I’m not Ruth Marx. They invented her. They put her on your computer with my thumbprint.

There were some similar themes in the 1992 film, Sneakers, which starred Robert Redford. The film focuses around attempts to create a black box which would crack American codes, allowing access to any American security system. In the process, a team tries to steal the box back and one of the characters purchases blueprints from the county recorders office for $50.00, leading the movie to be cited as an example of “the use and portrayal of records in film.” [1] With the information from the county recorder’s office, and their own observations, they are able to break-in to the company of the villain and get the box, but before it is handed to the NSA of the characters removes the main processing chip.

There is more than that. Redford’s character is basically a hacker, as was his friend Cosmo (who is the film’s villain) who was arrested and thrown into prison for computer crimes. The black box has a similar power to malicious code in The Net. Again, the focus is that records can easily be changed, or in the case of this movie, mimicked, to certain ends. Like the previously mentioned film, the cast is mostly White, but a bit more diverse in that they have a former Black CIA agent on the team of the “heroes.”

There’s one other film which has similar themes: Hackers, which features Angelina Jolie in a starring role. It focuses on a group of teen hackers who work to take down a villain who wants to sink a few oil tankers while getting wealthy in the process. In this “cult classic” film, as some places call it, there are computers running on dial-up (like in The Net), huge portable phones, people in some of the nerdiest clothes ever, and moving of information around on…floppy disks! In fact, the virus itself is on a floppy disk.

The altering of records is a key part of this film as well, as the villain alters criminal records of the male protagonist and his mother to list them as criminals, blackmailing him to give up the floppy disk. In the end, this group of hackers, all men except Angelina Jolie’s character, and all White except one kid with dreadlocks, sets out to take down the servers of the villain’s mega-corporation,  succeeding thanks to help from two Japanese hackers and their subsequent “electronic army” of hackers. Somehow they basically get off from their prison sentence thanks to a television broadcast from one of the hackers, which seems strange as he could be utterly lying. As with most movies of this nature, the plot doesn’t always completely add up.

Finally, there is a bit of an outlier: the 1996 film, My Fellow Americans. This is perhaps the most hokey film of all, although archives is a main part of this film. Ex-Presidents, played by James Garner and Jack Lemmon, discover a scandal in the current administration. Lemmon discovers that conspirators have altered his official records, at his presidential library archival vault, in order to “erase traces of a meeting.” At another time, Mark Lowethal’s character goes to the National Archives, finding that the presidential appointment log does not show this meeting. [2] It turns out the culprit behind these changes is the current sitting present, the former vice-president, with his chief of staff being the one whom “doctored the Archives log and the log in Kramer’s library.”

In this case, the film does not involve the changing of a digital record but only the changing of a paper record. Still, this has a similar theme to the other three movies in that records can be doctored, manipulated, and changed to the benefit of certain individuals. Although, this can be, at times, easier to do with digital records than with paper records. I would also say the theme that records can be changed, erased, or rewritten follows through the Halt and Catch Fire series, along with shows like Mr. Robot, going into its last season this coming fall.

Why do these films matter?

“If  I  could take  all the  things  that  I  am, all the  feelings  I  have, all the  things  that  I  want,  and somehow  get  them  on a  computer  card, you would be  the  answer. I  don’t  know  why  or  how  you’ve  come  along at this  particular  point  in my  life. See, that’s  the  magic part. I’m  not  gonna  let  you  go.”- Dr. Sidney Schaefer talks to his girlfriend (who ends up being one of the people who is spying on him) in The President’s Analyst, a 1967 film

They matter because more and more of the records held by archival institutions are digital, specifically “born-digital” (like tweets, Facebook posts). Of course, they are a bit dated, as they came out between 1992 and 1996. However, the point that records can be changed and manipulated should be considered. There should be measures in place to make sure that the records, especially digital records, are not tampered with. Perhaps this would require fixity checks, but also could necessitate rules on the usage of records themselves.

At the same time, the archives themselves should not be like the dark and haunting Thatcher Memorial Library in Citizen Kane, which has what some have described as having one of the world’s meanest archivists, played by Georgia Backus, with hair up in a bun “and an intimidating stare on her face, a real dragon lady at the gates of knowledge.” This is not the type of archives you want to go to! This is not the image which should be projected. [3]

What I have said so far is only scratching the surface. These 1990s movies have standing importance because born-digital files which are entering archives across the world, like some in New Zealand, include “photos, radio broadcasts and documents,” requiring appropriate workflows. Margot Note, a prolific writer in this field, described that as a former lone arranger who directed all archival management at an organization she launched a project to digitize a set of records, creating digital surrogates of 2,000 of the collection’s best images, adding that such surrogates are superior to past formats like microfilm since they can be delivered through networks “offering enhanced access to simultaneous users around the world.” In the same article she advocated the importance of digital collections, saying they grant “valuable remote access to the information contained within the original records” if they are created within the appropriate archival infrastructure, with metadata and search functionality, indexing. She adds that digital collections of archival records can not only provide for “multiple points of access and enhanced image details” but it can allow for more in-depth study than analog originals, increase interest in items which have often been ignored,and it can also act as “an advocacy tool for an archives.” She also argues that different types of digital surrogates of records can be created, either for web display, storage, or print reproduction. She ends by saying that while “electronic copies suffer no degradation through the duplication process,” a copy of a digital photograph is “indistinguishable from its source” meaning that the “original” loses its meaning, and that with digitized images, “researchers risk losing information that enables them to understand how the image was accessed and how its physicality changed over time.” As such, there should be efforts to limit or eliminate such a loss.

But there is another aspect to archival records. Librarian Carrie Wade argued back in December 2018 that information is political with information loss affected by federal funding decisions of research repositories ruining the work of professionals. Similarly in the case of archivists, they should not be completely neutral not only because who “we elect impacts our ability to do our jobs well and the access that people have to information,” as she argues, but they literally cannot be neutral as they are human beings with viewpoints, emotions, and thoughts of their own.  Building upon this, there are clear archival silences or “gaps in the archival record,” with these silences “created and enforced within archives” as a result of practices that are  “central to the work of archivists.” Digital records, whether born-digital, like social media posts, or digitized paper records, can help bridge this gap. After all, paper or analog records can be digitized in ways that allows access to them through online channels while originals are restricted.

All of this is relevant to the 1990s films I referenced in the first half of this post, as it requires having effective records management programs. The policies regarding records not only in Hackers and The Net, or even My Fellow Americans and Attack of the Clones were clearly outdated, and should be taken as a warning to have correct policies. This also requires taking into account challenges with capturing resources that are born-digital and making it available, effectively curating this information for the user. Furthermore this is important as a major trend in libraries is collection of data to prove their value even though this has its downsides especially when it comes to ethical concerns with data mining and big data, even though this can be useful. At the same time, how material is defined for easy access is a challenge “to every content owner,” as is choosing the right metadata, with “important detail work” in this process. The same is the case for finding more “accessible ways for people to find and scan content” and ways to share these “images with your target audience.” [4]

Concluding words

All of this ties back, of course, to the classic animated sitcom, Futurama, with its mentions of “technical support,” CDs, CD players/CD racks, and floppy disks (some of which are 15-inch). In fact, in one episode, “How Hermes Requisitioned His Groove Back” (season 2, episode 15), the last half of the episode is about going into the central bureaucracy to get back a disk with Bender’s brain on it, which is floppy disk. Others mention existing government records, databases, a record vault (safe  box) and an arrest record. In one episode Fry even declares to Bender that “I’m not a robot like you! I don’t like having disks crammed into me” while in another he downloads “a celebrity from the Internet” from a parody of Napster, which is kidnapping celebrities and illegally copying them, with the “backup disk” being a floppy disk. Others focus on big data and concentration of information, digital cameras and operating systems.

I mention all of this because it shows the relevance of record erasure, digital archives, digitization, and the changing digital environment. This requires of course that you don’t have “unauthorized data access” like Fry accessing the computer connected to the brain spawn. In the end, while these 1990s Hollywood movies are dated in various ways and problematic in others, they still have relevance connected to present developments of archival institutions in response to new technologies and making records more accessible to online users.

© 2019-2023 Burkely Hermann. All rights reserved.


[1] Kyle Neill, Senior Archivist of the Peel Art Gallery Museum & Archives also argues that there are archival themes in The Dark Knight (2008), The Avengers (1998), Chinatown (1974), and Tinker, Tailor, Solider, Spy (2011).

[2] This reminds me of a major plot point in Thrill Seekers, a 1999 TV movie, where the protagonist finds out that there are people who travel in time (from the future) to disasters and serve as tourists, disgustingly watching people die. In the process, the researcher on staff at a local newspaper, a bit like a records clerk, has databases of newspapers on her computer, which he searches to find information, which she lets him use even though she just met him (not good records management). Ultimately she says that she will go to the National Archives to find the original images, proving that he was not lying about the time travelers. Later, the protagonist goes back and time and saves her. But, I thought I’d just mention this, as the fact she is a bit of a records clerk brings in line with the records clerks in Erin Brocovitch (2000) and Chinatown (1974). The former has a clerk who flirts with a law firm filing clerk (Erin Brocovitch) who uncovers wrongdoings of a water utility company on her three visits to the records office of the Regional Water Board, letting her into “a records storage area, piled high with files, papers and binders, where she proceeds to copy water records,” allowing her to complete her work. The latter has a sullen young man who does not like his job, grudgingly providing assistance, with Jack Nicholson’s character “tearing out part of a page from a record book by covering the noise with a cough” after he is told he cannot check out the volume.This clerk, as one reviewer puts it, has “a well crafted scene presenting a stereotypical records keeper” with the clerk/archivist as “an impatient, unhelpful civil servant guarding over his records domain who treats the public as trespassers” while the “records are in long aisles in bound volumes.” Some have compared Erin Brocovitch to another film with records as central, specifically A Civil Action (1998).

[3] The same goes for Hollywood images of old archivists like in Vampires (1998) where the church archivist is introduced, a “slight, bearded man with glasses” whom is sent along on a quest,” in They Might Be Giants (1971) where a wealthy lawyer, who thinks he is Sherlock Holmes, teams up with a psychiatrist “to try to rid the world of evil” and in the process, one person plays an aged archivist who, despite his problems, “does come across as the sanest person in the movie and he finds clues to track down Moriarity,” or in Amityville II: The Possession (1982) when a father uses a local archives to find out about a hosue causing trouble for his family, and in the process he is helped by an elderly archivist, a person who says “I’ve worked here for 25 years.” There are other mentions of archives, but without archivists in Arlington Road (1998), Batman Begins (2005), Beverly Hills Ninja (1997), Broken Lullaby (1994), GoldenEye (1995), Journey to the Far Side of the Sun (aka Doppelganger) (1969), L.A. Confidential (1997), Message in a Bottle (1999), Ninth Gate (1999), Rogue One: A Star Wars Story (2017), Secret Nation (1991) [Canadian film], Shooting the Past (1999), Smila’s Sense of Snow (1997), The Dark Knight (2008), The Name of the Rose (1986), The Phantom (1996), and The Shadow (1994). Also, there are said to be flirtatious archivists in Carolina Skeletons (1991) and Just Cause (1995), along with helpful ones (either initially or ultimately) in Cloud Atlas (2012), Deceived (1991), Quatermass and the Pitt (1967), The Fugitive (1993), and The Mask of Dimitrios (1944). There are also a number of films which have archivists in the background: Charlton-Brown of the F.O. (1959), Macaroni (1986), Red (2010), Ridicule (1996), Rollerball (1975), and The Age of Stupid (2009), and those that are said to have nasty or mean archivists: Blade (1998), In the Name of the Father (1993), Scream 3 (2000), The Nasty Girl [Das Schreckliche Madchen] (1990), and The Watermelon Woman (1996). Please, do not constitute this as an endorsement of any of these films, as likely they are mostly terrible.

[4] Also see articles about how libraries lead with digital skills and a cryptic finding aid.

Librarians should not be “everything to every community member”

From the “I Love Lisa” episode (s4, e15).

Recently, on Twitter, there was justified consternation with what a library director, named Justin, wrote about librarians on May 3rd. I’m only new to the library and archives profession, although I am planning to work in an archival institution rather than a library, and my hope is that others in the profession could build upon this post with their own experiences and thoughts. I am also posting this because Justin the Librarian locked his Twitter account, raising the question that he does not want his opinion to be challenged! This post is not meant as an attack on Justin himself, but rather a challenge to him (and others who feel the same), that they should change their views on libraries. Additionally, I understand, as Stephanie Crawford put it on Twitter, criticizing this post, “public libraries are often places for people to stay warm, to use the rest room, to job search, to do hw, to print resumes, to check email, etc” and do not intend to paint those who are poor as “an unwanted burden,” but rather are talking about responsibilities librarians should have to their respective communities. The socioeconomic class of patrons of libraries is clearly important, and I have tried to incorporate that into this piece, but it should also be acknowledged that I am mainly talking about the role of the library profession, rather than the patrons, in this post, so that leads some aspects to fall to the wayside.

After saying how public libraries have changed a lot since 2009 and that there will be changes in the future in these “great place[s],”adding that “this is a time to celebrate and also a time to think about the future,” Justin declares that “if you’re working in a public library now and you’re not enjoying it maybe you shouldn’t be working in a public library” which implies that everyone in a public library will enjoy their jobs and that no toxic environments exist, which is clearly incorrect. [1] He followed this with the most jarring statement of his post:

If you feel grumpy about your day to day work, if planning and hosting events isn’t your thing, and if you’re just not ready to be everything to every community member that comes through your doors, this public library thing just isn’t for you in 2019. And honestly, it’s just going to continue to be less of a thing for you as public libraries move ahead. The public libraries that I see existing today in 2019 will continue to be improved upon and become even more community focused in the next ten years. Libraries are on the right path these days, one that is fully focused on their communities. Do you want to be on that path?

The section when he says that librarians should be “everything to every community member” is what angered librarians on Twitter, rightly so, with Alexis Logsdon calling it “infuriating.” Why should this heavy responsibility be hoisted on librarians? Why do they need to be “everything”? [2] As such, the idea that public librarians (or any librarians for that matter) should be “everything” to the communities, regardless of their class, race, gender, or creed, they serve should be challenged. I say this, while acknowledging the important role that librarians engage in when serving their communities, especially those who use libraries as a community space to serve their effective information needs, to pull from the titles of one of the courses I took in the fall, which was called “serving information needs.”

The first part of that challenge is to summarize the tweet conversation on this topic. In fact, I thought of creating this piece after reading through the whole thread and responses, beginning with a thread by Julie Jergens. This piece goes beyond “shutting things like this down” and rejecting “this bullshit savior narrative,” to quote her, as I aim to look at various posts he has made, not only one solitary post, to form a cogent argument to counter his points.

Jergens, in her tweet thread, called the statement that librarians should be “everything” to communities is not only “dangerously misinformed” but some “male BS” for a majority-female profession.  She went onto say that relationships where one person or an organization is meant to be everything to another is “unbalanced, unhealthy, and unsustainable,” adding that people are asking more and more of librarians, but not what local jurisdictions can do. With that, she points out what should be obvious: “the library cannot and should not be everything,” with librarians working to serve the information needs of users. But this does not mean that librarians are lawyers, doctors, social workers, or “miracle worker[s]” [3] and that these information professionals should not be told to do more with nothing (or less) or that they are not focused on their community, as they evidently are, on the whole. She added to this by saying that the community she serves “deserves real experts, real services, real care, not just a librarian with access to narcan,” doing what she can to help her community, but is not willing to “sacrifice myself and my staff to be EVERYTHING to EVERYONE,” saying that “does not make me unsuited for public libraries.”

Those that responded to Jurgen had a similar and understandable sentiment, clearly based in reality. Some sarcastically pointed out it was a “great time” with librarians when budgets for social services are being slashed, with job insecurity and low pay, which Justin the Librarian barely talks about, as I’ll note in this piece. Others said that it is wrong to say that librarians who are facing trauma (or stress) from their work are “worthless and not cut out for the job” and that it is dangerous for librarians to think of themselves as everything for their community and patrons without training, as “it’s unethical to pretend we are or can be.” Responses beyond this pointed out that library budgets need to train staff appropriately if they continue to “stay on the front lines of community service,” especially since some people at their library jobs have not received any training, and that there should be efforts to “set boundaries for yourself/your organization.” The latter would use effective “social capital” of libraries to push back. Some added that the idea that librarians should do “everything” is problematic because “working with the public is taxing emotionally and physically,” making it an unrealistic expectation, and that the idea that librarianship is a job “worth killing ourselves for” should be challenged, citing an article by Fobazi Ettarh within In the Library With the Lead Pipe. Additional comments echoed the same sentiments already expressed, noted that this is one of the only professions where an unrealistic “level of involvement is expected and required,” that there should be professional boundaries as “it’s just not healthy or good service to expect library staff to be everything to everyone.” Final comments stated that if librarians are required to “everything to everyone they need to raise your salary” a lot, that people were apparently “misinterpreting” the post, called the thread by Jurgens a “must read” with Jurgens outlining “perfectly what should be done,” and said that the idea that librarians should be “everything for everyone” is a perfect “recipe for burnout” along with being a harmful expectation.

In the case of Justin, his viewpoint as a White male librarian should be no surprise. While you could say he has good intentions in that he wants librarians to connect with the community, out from behind their desks, including his support of efforts to reduce library fines, which are positives that librarians should undoubtedly aim to do in order to cement the importance of their public institutions to the communities they serve, his idea that library materials should be put in public restrooms is a mistake, especially if there are actual materials in those restrooms. I remember when working at the Washington Village branch of the Enoch Pratt Free Library in Baltimore and there was a key to get into the bathrooms and it was prohibited to bring library materials into the bathrooms themselves. Perhaps he is thinking about pamphlets or something, but this idea, from how I understand it, rubs me the wrong way. The same goes for his “seven things” that he declares libraries should do. He suggests buying/collecting local, making stuff with patrons, building apps, standing up for yourself, exploring new partnerships, collect things the community wants not “what you want,” and be “very nice.” Some may say that this is all hunky dory and that there are no problems with these approaches, especially when it comes to providing new and exciting services for the communities they serve. But, should libraries have their collections solely determined by the community? Shouldn’t they have the ability to choose materials they think are necessary, even if that does not fit with what the community is requesting at the present time? Additionally, the “very nice” aspect (which he brings up in a later post), seems optimistic but also unrealistic. Can libraries afford to be nice to every single person, including those patrons which are problematic or disruptive? Clearly libraries should strive to serve every member of the community they can, regardless of their socio-economic class, race, gender, or other characteristic, but the idea you should be nice to everyone is clearly emotional work/labor for the librarians themselves. At the same time, the goals he suggests could easily cause stress on librarians with increased responsibilities on top of their existing duties. [4]

Justin doesn’t stop there. He writes about e-books, suggests that librarians should stop saying “no” to patrons (whatever that entails), and wrote a chapter of a book on library marketing while also presenting on personal branding. [5] This writings remind me of the Achieving Organizational Excellence I took last semester as part of my MLIS program, with skills that would speak to a manager like himself, but was seen as an annoying and unnecessary class by many of my fellow classmates, from what I recall. I still remember at the beginning of the semester when the professor asked who wanted to be a manager and a few people raised their hands. [6] By the end of the semester, the same question was asked and NO ONE raised their hands, as everyone detested the class and did  not want to be a manager, with most of the class materials written for managers, not for those at the bottom of the employee ladder who could be managers in the future. In this way, his perspective differs from most librarians, many of whom are not managers, since that’s not how hierarchies work. Is it any surprise that Justin the Librarian would push aside planning programs “having grand ideas, and just thinking and talking and thinking some more but not acting as quickly as I could”? Simultaneously he would endorse library programming, which seems contradictory. Furthermore, he seems to be on the “innovation” train when it comes to libraries, seems to think he “knows” how librarians should act at work (compared to how they apparently use their time), and focuses on hiring. As a director, it is no surprise he would write about the difference between management and leadership, declare that libraries need to transform, and say that “working in a public library is not about competition. It is about community.” Some of these ideals, like saying that libraries are about communities, is not necessarily bad and should be encouraged. But, grumbling about how librarians spend their time at work and focusing on transforming/innovating a library is a problem, especially since the latter could cause undue disruptions in the library itself, weakening the role that libraries play as community centers.

Many may say that libraries are for “every single person that comes through the doors of their public library,” which fits with existing concepts of social responsibility that librarians often exude, and that librarians do, on the whole, work which “has a positive impact on your community.” However, the former carries with it various problems, like the issues of Nazis in the library or other bigoted individuals, which none of his blogs, from what I could find, ever address. The closest he gets to this is focusing on having a safe working environment which does not have “sexual harassment, stalking, and inappropriate comments.” Does he never think about bigoted individuals in libraries? His blog indicates that he does not think about this in on a general basis, which is troubling. Similarly, you can say that he is right that every public library should do an annual report. However, this could easily be turned back on the library itself, used by those who want to cut public services and privatize them, so there should be care in compiling these reports, that they don’t result in the idea that libraries can “do more with less” which is inherently destructive, as even Justin the librarian admits, when he says that there’s a limit to that thinking. As anyone who has been employed would know, just because people are nice and friendly to you, they can be sadistic and use the statistics, requirements, and metrics against you and your organization. As such, just because someone is nice, this is no guarantee that those on the other side of the relationship (like those in government or business) will not be jerks.

In other posts, Justin the Librarian says that libraries should be made more simple, focus their services on the “hyperlocal” level, and focus on the community more than anything else, even giving suggestions for small rural libraries with strapped budgets. Again, the first two suggestions are problematic in that it could limit the purview of libraries too much, at worst making them not as much of community centers, allowing them to serve patrons from all walks of life, and centers of learning then they should be. In one post, back in October 2017, he declares that “people don’t come in and borrow books on how to do things/fix things/research things anymore.” I wouldn’t say that is completely true, as people come in and borrow books all the time and that will not stop, even with the advent of the library. Of course, libraries should change over time and not be static, but I think “simplifying” libraries could have problematic elements to them, especially with the incorporating business elements: providing library patrons “with amazing customer service.” I still remember in my exit interview with a HR rep of the Pratt Library and I started talking about patrons and they corrected me to say those were “consumers.” To me, it is deeply problematic to adopt these business terms and concepts in libraries and other public institutions, as you could call those who use libraries as either patrons or library users. There should be a clear wall of separation between public and private institutions when it comes to conceptions used to make a profit. I know there has already been some leakage into public institutions, but it should be limited to the best extent possible.

One of Justin’s worst ideas is not his “summer reading treehouse” which seems a bit silly or even library billboards, but rather library currency. How is this exciting, as he claims? That sounds like a terrible idea that need an extensive infrastructure to put in place. He actually wrote about this idea again, recently, saying that he likes “the idea of a library currency that rewards good library behaviors, engages community members in programs, and helps patrons with library fines” and saying this idea of currency “goes a long way in promoting kindness in the community.” He closes by adding that “this idea may work or this idea may not work. The important thing is to always keep dreaming and to keep on trying new things for your community. They are the most important thing in public libraries.” While I appreciate that sentiment, I’m still not onboard on the “library currency” train, as it seems that it would cause strain on libraries themselves and those that work within them. And with that, I would argue that it seems evident that he doesn’t care as much about those who work in librarians as much as he would think.

Overall, you could say that Justin the Librarian has his “heart in the right place.” However, he seriously needs to rethink many of his conceptions of how libraries work and think not only of management but the legions of librarians who do the on-the-ground work, leading to stress, trauma, and strain, to say the least. The idea that librarians should be able to do “everything” for every community member is a clearly ignorant statement. It should be roundly rejected and replaced with the idea that librarians should do what they can, but never try to be “everything” since it would stretch their personal capacities and the institutions themselves, weakening the profession as a whole, even as librarians work to serve patrons from all walks of life.

© 2019-2023 Burkely Hermann. All rights reserved.


[1] He almost guilt-trips people into working in public libraries, saying: “this is a great time to be working in a public library. Sure, there are bumps in the road but overall your community members value the work you do, from the events you plan to the collections you develop and even the little moments where you’re checking out library materials to a community member. Every step of the way in your work at your public library your community values you. Who wouldn’t want to work in a place like this?” This is utterly disgusting, as it seems to act like those who don’t work in public libraries are somehow bad.

[2] But Justin the Librarian does not stop there. He does say it is fine if you “do not want to be on the path that public libraries are on” and even if you do not like change, there is nothing wrong with you, adding that by asking yourself if you want to work in a public library you can “learn a lot about yourself, grow, and if the need arises move onto something that better suits you.” He ends by saying that if you choose to work in a public library then it benefits the library and the community, adding “be honest and be true to the decision. Be honest and be true to yourself. That’s all you need to be in this life.” You could say these sentiments are, a bit, condescending.

[3] At minimum, we can say that librarians should not be social workers, grief counselors, or financial advisors, to say the least. Perhaps they will be forced into these roles, due to the current strain on social services within the U.S., but this is not an ideal situation.

[4] Justin has probably never read Not Always Right (focused on funny and dumb stories about “consumers”/users across society) and its many stories focusing on libraries.

[5] Speaking of branding, in one post he expresses his anger at social media, yet in another he literally advertises his social media, promoting his own…brand! Clearly a case of hypocrisy, if you ask me.

[6] This was followed by a question of how many will end up being managers, with more people raising their hands than was the case with the other question.