The fate of history in the balance: The Seattle Federal Records Center still under threat

On February 16, John C. Coughenour, a Reagan-appointee and Senior Judge of the U.S. District Court for the Western District of Washington, blocked the sale of the National Archives facility at Seattle, one of the Federal Records Centers (FRC) in the U.S. with a preliminary injunction. This ended the movement of records from the facility to FRCs in Missouri and California, many of which are “un-digitized records.” He called the situation a “public relations disaster” of the Public Buildings Reform Board (PBRB), the entity which proposed the sale, and said that the PBRB had “a stunning lack of appreciation of the issues” of indigenous people. While the attorney generals of Washington State and Oregon applauded the decision, as did indigenous people, genealogists, U.S. Senator Maria Cantwell, and others, the fight is not over. The Stranger said that history “requires defending in the present,” The Cut argued that the fate of the Seattle FRC “remains undecided,” and MyNorthwest noted there is “more potential trouble” in the future if noting about the facility changes going forward. On February 18, local Seattle leaders and the governor of Oregon both wrote President Biden, calling on him to stop the sale of the facility. Even with the injunction, it is short-lived, meaning that the facility remains under threat. As such, it is important to once again, as I noted in February and November of last year, to explain the negative impact the closure of this facility will have on those in the Pacific Northwest and in the U.S. as a whole.

Over the past year, there have been legal efforts to delay the closure. Kim Wyman, the Secretary of State of Washington State, began meeting with the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) and other stakeholders, in hopes of brokering a solution to keep the archival materials, which document “history across the Pacific Northwest” in the state of Washington. At the same time, Washington Attorney General Bob Ferguson made filings in federal court, including the recent lawsuit which included almost 600 pages from indigenous peoples, individuals, and interested groups which attest to the value of the Seattle facility and materials which are held there. If the “nearly million” boxes of archival materials from the facility were moved to Missouri and California as planned, access to records about Asian American history would be made more difficult, as would records that relate to the “cultural preservation, history and treaty rights” of various indigenous nations in the Pacific Northwest. Moving the records to facilities in those states would make them less publicly accessible, destroying one of the “wellsprings” from which the “collective memory” of the region and nation is formed, as argued in the case in the amicus brief by the Korematsu Center. A recent successful lawsuit filed by Ferguson in early January, joined by 29 indigenous groups, and historic community and preservation groups, to stop the relocation and sale of the Seattle FRC, explains the problem succinctly:

“This action shows a callous disregard for the people who have the greatest interest in being able to access these profoundly important records…The facility contains the DNA of our region. It provides public access to permanent records created by Federal agencies and courts in Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington…the National Archives at Seattle is the only property among those the PBRB recommended for sale that has profound importance to the region in which it is situated and is regularly used by members of the public…These irreplaceable archives are primarily un-digitized and do not exist elsewhere.”

The closure of the facility would violate NARA’s own principles to preserve and provide access to U.S. records and document U.S. history, especially those documents essential to U.S. government actions, rights of U.S. citizens, and any other records which “provide information of value to citizens.” It also runs afoul of NARA’s commitment to drive “openness, cultivate public participation” and strengthen U.S. democracy through “public access to high-value government records.” That same commitment states that NARA will lead the “archival and information professions to ensure archives thrive in a digital world.” That seems unlikely since only about 1% of the NARA’s record holdings are digitized and even less than 1% of presidential library records have been put online.

Furthermore, moving the records from Seattle to the FRCs in California, whether in Riverside or in San Francisco, and St. Louis, Missouri, would disregard the core values of archivists outlined by the Society of American Archivists. These core values state that archivists have a duty to foster greater access and use to records, maintain records which allow “contemporary and future entities” to seek accountability, serve as responsible stewards for primary sources,” and root their “ethics of care that prioritizes sustainable practices and policies” when it comes to archival duties. The “boxes of information” within the Seattle FRC, highlighted by one local Seattle reporter, Matthew Smith, would be made less accessible if the records were moved elsewhere in the country. If the Seattle FRC is closed, it will be a sad day for archives, records, and preservation of U.S., indigenous, and community history.

Although the closure of the Seattle FRC has been halted by Judge Coughenour, this is only a temporary measure. In the short-term, you could contact the management team of NARA, especially chief archivist David Ferriero (david.ferriero@nara.gov), deputy chief archivist Debra Steidel Wall (debra.wall@nara.gov), and Chief Operating Officer William J. Bosanko (william.bosanko@nara.gov), and the PBRB at fastainfo@pbrb.gov, to express your opposition to the closure, while calling on President Biden to follow the judge’s decision and keep the facility open. In the long term, NARA needs increased funding and you can use the information put together by the Archival Researchers Association to contact your members of Congress to push for legislation which would increase the agency’s budget.

Reprinted from Issues & Advocacy. This was written before the sale of the facility was halted by the Biden Administration. After learning this, I said on Twitter, “that doesn’t mean it should be sold. The decision to sell tthee [sic] facility was rotten and it’s good it was stopped,” called for a bigger budget to NARA, and noted “it was good timing to write another article about this back in March. I personally wasn’t sure whether the sale would be cancelled [sic], but I am glad it was.”

REPOST–“Far-reaching impacts”: Why the closure of NARA’s Seattle facility still matters

Archivists on the Issues is a forum for archivists to discuss the issues we are facing today. The following is from Burkely Hermann, recent graduate of the University of Maryland – College Park’s graduate program in Library and Information Science, with a concentration in Archives and Digital Curation.

Back on February 18, I wrote about the closure of the National Archives and Records Administration (NARA)’s Seattle facility, NAS for short. Recently this issue came to the fore with the publication of an article by Megan E. Llewellyn and Sarah A. Buchanan titled “Will the Last Archivist in Seattle Please Turn Out the Lights: Value and the National Archives” in the Journal of Western Archives.

The NAS facility is key to many different communities. The official page for the facility specifically highlights information they hold about Chinese immigrants and indigenous affairs, along with land records, court records, and genealogical resources. This includes tribal and treaty records of indigenous people living in the Pacific Northwest, and original case files for Chinese immigrants in the 19th century. Volunteers have been trying to index the Chinese immigrant files and create an “extensive database of family history.” This will be interrupted if the files are moved, making the database incomplete.

The NAS facility itself has regional significance. The property the facility sits on was once the location of a prospering farm owned by Japanese immigrant Uyeji family from 1910 to 1942. [1] These immigrants were evicted from their land during World War II and put into concentration camps, like the over 120,000 Japanese Americans. The immigrant Uyeji family never returned to their home, and the land was seized by the U.S. Navy in 1945, after it had been condemned in earlier years, in order to build a warehouse. [2] The warehouse was later converted into a facility and began to be occupied by the National Archives after 1963. This transfer of ownership intersected with the history of Seattle’s development which benefited White people above those of other races, from 1923 onward.

There is more to be considered. As Llewellyn and Buchanan argue in the Journal of Western Archives, the closure of NAS is harmful, a failure at “multiple levels of government,” and was made without considering how valuable marginalized communities in the area see the records held at the facility. [3] 58,000 cubic feet are permanent records of federal agencies in the Pacific Northwest, while 6,600 cubic feet are occupied by records from the Bureau of Indian Affairs alone. [4] Neither should be destroyed per NARA guidance. This amount of cubic feet is equivalent to about 1,871 side-by-side refrigerators or about 1,234 top-mount refrigerators. [5] No matter how the size is measured, the NAS facility is well-used, as is its digital resources, by Asian-Americans, indigenous people, and various researchers. [6] Some indigenous people even called the closure and movement of records to other locations a “paper genocide.” As Bob Ferguson, the Washington State Attorney General, stated in February, moving the records from the NAS facility to states such as California and Missouri, contradicts the purpose of the archives and impedes efforts by local families to research their ancestors.

There are other problems with the closure. Llewellyn and Buchanan pointed out, for one, the errors in the Public Buildings Reform Board (PBRB)’s assessment to close the facility, noting the significant level of foot traffic, the lack of public hearings on the closure, and NARA management agreeing with the decision to close. [7] There is also concern that not all the records held at the NAS facility could be digitized. Some news outlets, like MyNorthwest, have rightly pointed out that large items like bound books and maps might not be “properly scanned” or digitized at all. Llewellyn and Buchanan further note the involved process of digitization, and extra costs researchers will have to pay if the records from the NAS facility are moved. [8]

Readers may be asking what can be done about the closure. Now is not the time to sit back and let the Washington State government do the heavy lifting, nor the Seattle media. In the latter case, the Seattle Times opined against the decision to close the NAS facility. In the case of Washington State, Ferguson, mentioned earlier, proposed a compromise to keep the regional facility of NARA in Washington State, worrying, like others, of the prospect of losing access to “over a century of history.” But his noble efforts have been for naught. The closure is on track, with NARA justifying it based on experience with the COVID-19 pandemic, saying the agency will be “less location dependent” in the future, with users accessing resources remotely rather than in-person. On the legal front, in August, Ferguson filed federal Freedom of Information Act lawsuits for public records against NARA, the Office of Management & Budget (OMB), and the General Services Administration (GSA). He also requested documents from the PBRB the same month. He stated that NARA and OMB failed to respond to requests he made in early February, while the GSA has not sent records it promised in the summer of this year. The PBRB, on the other hand, wanted taxpayers to pay about $65,000 to redact information from documents even though no sensitive information is present, as stated in various articles in the Seattle Times, HeraldNet, and Seattle Weekly. These efforts will likely go forward as Ferguson won the race to be the Attorney General of Washington State against Republican challenger Matt Larkin.

In the short-term, readers should email the OMB Director Russell Vought at Russell.t.vought@omb.eop.gov, the GSA Administrator Emily Murphy at emily.murphy@gsa.gov, Archivist David Ferriero at David.Ferriero@nara.gov, and the PBRB at fastainfo@pbrb.gov, opposing the closure of the NAS facility. Currently, the NAS facility has not been listed by the GSA for sale, whether on its database of real property or its database displaying federal properties being auctioned off. While COVID-19 makes the push for more remote learning attractive, it is still possible and vital to open in-person facilities, in line with existing rules and regulations to ensure the safety of the staff and patrons at specific facilities. In the long-term, if the NAS facility is closed, it could put other NARA facilities in jeopardy, as Llewellyn and Buchanan point out. [9] At the same time, archivists should advocate for a “massive investment in time, money, and planning” to digitize more of NARA’s holdings, as the aforementioned scholars argue for, [10] with not even 1% digitized at the present! Whether the facility is closed or not, there are dark times ahead for NARA, as less government spending may be on the horizon, unless the proposed budget for NARA is approved by the House of Representatives and Senate.


Notes

[1] Llewellyn, Megan E., and Sarah A. Buchanan, “Will the Last Archivist in Seattle Please Turn Out the Lights: Value and the National Archives and the National Archives,” Journal of Western Archives 11, no. 1 (October 12, 2020): 7, https://digitalcommons.usu.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1125&context=westernarchives.

[2] Llewellyn and Buchanan, 7-9.

[3] Ibid, 3-4.

[4] Ibid, 4-5.

[5] Karie Lapham Fay, “Dimensions of a Standard Size Refrigerator,” SFGate, December 17, 2018, https://homeguides.sfgate.com/dimensions-standard-size-refrigerator-82262.html. I used the largest size of a side-by-side refrigerator (31 cubic feet) and the largest size of a top-mount refrigerator is 47 cubic feet when using the highest numbers in Fay’s article.

[6] Llewellyn and Buchanan,  5-6.

[7] Ibid, 11-17.

[8] Ibid, 17-19.

[9] Ibid, 24-25.

[10] Ibid, 21.

REPOST — More than a warehouse: why the closure of Seattle’s National Archives facility matters

Archivists on the Issues is a forum for archivists to discuss the issues we are facing today. The following is from Burkely Hermann, recent graduate of the University of Maryland – College Park’s graduate program in Library and Information Science, with a concentration in Archives and Digital Curation.

On January 26, the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) approved the sale of the 157,000 square foot National Archives and Records Administration (NARA) Seattle facility, which holds permanent federal records for Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. This decision raises the question: which is more important, access to historic records or selling a public facility in a high-value real estate market? There has been fierce opposition from historical societies in Alaska and Seattle, historical researchers, genealogical groups, indigenous leaders, university professors, archivists, and historians. They were joined by a bipartisan group of eight Alaskan state legislators and 16 Congress members. The latter, comprising Washingtonian, Alaskan, Idahoan, and Montanan politicians, was also bipartisan. Washington Governor Jay Inslee also opposed the decision, as did Washington’s Secretary of State Kim Wyman. Washington Attorney General Bob Ferguson is considering suing the federal government over the closure. He reportedly submitted a Freedom of Information Act request to the five-person Public Buildings Reform Board (PBRB), OMB, NARA, and the General Services Administration (GSA) regarding the closure. The Washington State Archives even created a page about the topic.

History Associates Incorporated, which cautioned their clients to plan ahead for the facility’s closure, noted the process would take 18 months. They also included the estimate from Susan Karren, NARA’s Seattle director that only “.001% of the facility’s 56,000 cubic feet of records are digitized and available online,” and stated that permanent records may be inaccessible when transferred between facilities. According to NARA, no actions are being taken imminently which affect users of the facility, and NARA has requested to stay in the facility for three years following the sale. With such hullabaloo on this topic, one question is relevant: why does this closure matter to us, as fellow archivists?

NARA’s Seattle facility in Sand Point is more than a “giant U.S. government warehouse” or “excess property” as described in bureaucratic language. This facility holds records on indigenous people in Alaska, Washington, Oregon, and Idaho. It also holds: Chinese Exclusion Act case files which have been diligently indexed by local volunteers for the past 28 years; Forest Service teletypes about the Mount St. Helens explosion in 1980; federal case records from the early 1900s; and other important local documents. Such records make the NARA facility part of the “historical ecosystem” in the Northwestern United States, providing the public “direct access to government documents, from genealogical records to court files.” These aspects make the facility a “high value” federal property (or “asset”) which has a “deferred maintenance backlog of $2.5 million.” Additionally, no public PBRB meeting transcripts showed discussion of the closure. In one meeting, “warehouse[s]” used by NARA for “long-term storage” was touched on and at another there was a passing mention of Seattle.

Some may point to existing digitization efforts. Sure, some of Alaska’s records have been digitized, but record series are often digitized by FamilySearch and the project is only five years old. For instance, some records relating to Alaska have been digitized like crew lists, immigrant lists, draft cards, and naturalization records, as is the case with Washington and Idaho. But these are primarily 20th century records, with very few 19th century records. The letter from congress members criticizing the decision also called this out, stating that “NARA’s partnership with FamilySearch to digitize records has…not resulted in actual access to records that have been prioritized by stakeholders,” a unique and rare criticism of the NARA-FamilySearch partnership. The limitations of existing digitization undermines NARA’s reasoning that some of their “popular records” are already digitized or available online, asserting that public access to their archival records will stay in place.

Access to “archived knowledge” is vital and inherent to archival ethics. Moving records away from those who can use it, dividing it between two existing facilities in Riverside, California, and Kansas City, Missouri, is an act of cruel inaccessibility. Furthermore, splitting the records between two locations, regardless of the reason, leads to a strain on those facilities, which need additional storage space. NARA itself admits that the closure will negatively affect those who use the facility. They pledge to engage with researchers in a “smooth” transition when the facility is shuttered, even though this change will undoubtedly disadvantage various stakeholders, whether state archivists, government employees, scientists, students, or others. In a recent invitation-only meeting, they showed their commitment to the closure of the facility, pledging to work with indigenous groups.

The PBRB’s executive director Adam Bodner claimed that the closure of the facility was a decision by NARA staff. If true, this would put them at odds with users and stakeholders who want the facility to remain open. On pages A-68 to A-71 of their report, the PBRB concluded that NARA wanted to move to a more modern facility and that the 10 acres the facility sat on would be great for residential housing, apparently worth tens of millions of dollars as one article claimed. The PBRB also stated that NARA could only fulfill its storage needs at another facility because the current facility does not meet NARA’s “long-term storage needs.” In the process, some records will be moved to a temporary facility. Reportedly, NARA justified the closure by the fact that the facility is the third-least visited NARA site in the country and has “high operating costs.” Such arguments don’t consider the fact that the 73-year-old building could be retrofitted for the agency’s needs or records could be moved closer rather than split between two locations. This closure also stands against NARA’s stated goal that public access is part of its core mission and violates the Society of American Archivists’ Code of Ethics, stating that archivists “promote and provide the widest accessibility of materials.”

In coming days, NARA will be submitting a Report of Excess to the GSA, headed by Administrator Emily Murphy, which will collaborate with the PBRB and OMB to help “offload” properties like this facility. As such, to speak out against the closure, you could email Emily Murphy at emily.murphy@gsa.gov, the GSA’s Deputy Administrator at Allison Brigati at allison.brigati@gsa.gov, call 1-844-GSA-4111 or contact the GSA’s Office of Real Property Utilization and Disposal at 202-501-0084 and at realestate.buildingdisposal@gsa.gov. Alternatively, you could contact the OMB’s Russell Vought at Russell.t.vought@omb.eop.gov or Archivist David Ferriero at David.Ferriero@nara.gov.


Note: This post is reprinted from Issues & Advocacy, as part of their “Archivists on the Issues” series. I wrote this article back on February 18 and am glad I did so. The situation has not changed as a result of COVID-19. Articles by the Seattle Times, Seattle Times again, and MyNorthwest, show that the closure seems to still be on the agenda, although discussions with the Congressional delegations and others with NARA continue in hopes of reaching an agreement.

Reviewing Carole & Tuesday: LGBTQ representation and music industry woes

Readers: I thought I’d share a transcript of my recently created podcast, HermannView. Perhaps it could have been a bit more polished, I admit, which is why the second one will be even better! I’m new to this, so suggestions are welcome.

 

[Beginning music]

[Opening:] Hi, I’m Burkely. This is HermannView, a podcast, where I talk about anime, animated shows, archives, libraries and everything in between.

[Introduction:] Hello everyone! I’d like to introduce myself first before getting to the topics for this week. I recently earned a master’s degree in library science, also called a master of library and information Science or MLIS. And a couple of years before that, back in 2016, I earned a B.A. in Political Science with a minor in History. So, some of my podcasts will focus on those topics, while others will focus on my interest in animated shows and anime, which started this past summer and has continued to the present. And with that, let’s get on with the show this week.

[Commentary beginning:] This week, I’d like to talk about a show that I just finished watching. It’s called Carole & Tuesday. It focuses around two characters, one who comes from a very rich family: Tuesday, and another one who is a former refugee, and is often fired from her part-time jobs and is relatively poor. That’s Carole. Both of them are musically inclined. Carole has a keyboard and Tuesday has a guitar. So they’re both drawn together in the first episode of the show. And from then on, the main theme of the show is them trying to climb up the ladder of the music industry. Going from being little-known music artists to becoming a popular sensation. I’ll talk more about that later. About halfway through the show, the 11th episode, is when Tuesday is kidnapped by goons sent by her mother, Valerie, to abduct her and bring her back home. And her mother is a prominent politician who’s running for the presidency of the planet, which in this case is Mars. That means that the show has some sci-fi themes to say the least. [laughs] From then on, that’s episode eleven, the show starts to take more of a political slant in terms of criticism and commentary. Her mother ends up being sort of like the current U.S. president, but also a little like Marie Le Pen in France. That’s what she reminded me of, at least. In that way, the show becomes a commentary because the mother of Tuesday has a very strong anti-immigrant message. This becomes a sort of a sub story of the show, with there also being journalist who’s investigating it. This is tied into Carole and Tuesday trying to move up this music industry ladder.

There’s also a number of other topics which are worth noting. I have this nerdy sort of quest, as I call it, to watch animated shows and anime that have LGBTQ characters. With that, I’d like to highlight a number of LGBTQ characters in the show. The first of them is the agent and parent of Angela, who is a competitor to Carole and Tuesday. While I’m not going to give any spoilers on that, she basically doesn’t have a determinate gender because of the influence of the Martian environment. So she is what they call androgynous or you can call genderqueer or non-binary, whatever label you want to use. They call themselves androgynous in the show. Similarly, there is also Desmond, who is a highly respected solitary artist, and they describe themselves as androgynous also because of the radiation that falls on the planet, noting that they were, “originally a man but am turning into a woman” and are feeling emotionally as a man and a woman at the same time. They later play their last song for Carole and Tuesday, their manager, Gus, and Roddy, who is also one of their friends and a sound technician. However, they later return in the show’s last episode, singing with a bunch of other well-known music stars on the planet. There are also a few other characters, three of whom are bisexual. One of them is Ertegun, who is a major DJ on the planet of Mars. In one of the earliest episodes, he says he has love for “only capable dudes and great chicks.” That means he is bisexual. As the show moves forward, he has a big role as a secondary character.

There’s also Marie and Anne. Marie used to date Gus, who is Carole & Tuesday’s manager. But now she’s in this relationship with Anne, kissing her in front of Carole and Tuesday, surprising them, and both of them plan to get married. Since Anne is implied to have a male partner before Marie, this means that both Marie and Anne are bisexual. The weirdest character in a way, in terms of the fact that she is undoubtedly a stereotype, is Cybelle. [1] She is the biggest fan of Tuesday, but has a pretty dangerous obsession with her. And at one point, bites her on the neck, a la Marceline the Vampire Queen in “Red Starved.” It gets weird. [laugh] Tuesday realizes that she can’t let this person have this obsession with her anymore and rejects her. Cybelle becomes emotional wreck as a result. She puts a present in Tuesday’s dressing room. Inquisitive, Tuesday opens it. She screams, Carole comes running and sees that this present has blown up, injuring her hand. This means she can’t play guitar in the upcoming show. Tuesday still plays a song with Carole despite her arm being in a sling. They sing the first song they came up with together. After that, Cybelle is taken away and we never see her again for the rest of the show! But other than that, other than that character, the LGBTQ representation is pretty good.

Coming back to Cybelle for a second. Cybelle is about as bad as O.D. If any of you have watched Gatchaman Crowds. And there is a character named O.D. who is a horrible stereotype in that show. You could argue they are maybe genderqueer or non-binary. It’s never really established. Cybelle might be better, but it’s not very good representation. Other than that, I like the show a lot and its pacing. Its a very good show in terms of the episodic format, which others, like Steven Universe and Adventure Time have struggled with in the past, having occasional “filler” episodes. I wish Carole & Tuesday was longer and think it wraps up too quickly. That reminds me of what people say about the season five finale of Steven Universe, “Change Your Mind.” People say that the show wrapped up so quickly and they were rushing to get to the end. While this has has some validity, the show still holds together. In any case, the show’s creators, like Rebecca Sugar, moved the story forward quickly due to the possibility they would be cancelled, even over the lesbian wedding in “Reunited.” [2] I’ve read all sorts of different stories and watched different videos about this. So, I kinda know about it a little bit. Despite the problems with Awestruck Vox [he beefed with a fan back in 2017], or Kevin Williams, on The Roundtable, he has some good videos about this that I’d recommend people check out if they are interested. As for the new Steven Universe Future series, which is basically the final/capstone/epilogue series for the Steven Universe franchise, people have said the same thing. In terms of the cast and crew behind Steven Universe, they’re probably going to move into games and comic books and those sorts of things. I seriously doubt that they’re going to move toward any future animated series. Maybe I’m wrong and they will have a new show on HBO Max like Adventure Time. That’s always a possibility. I kind of doubt at this point, but maybe they will surprise me, even having a special on Lars in the Stars [I was trying to refer to “Lars of the Stars” here] or something like that. We’ll see what happens.

I bring this up because people make the same sorts of criticisms when it comes to Carole & Tuesday. Some don’t like the pacing of the show or the fact that all the songs are in English. Building on that, this show is very song-intensive and the songs are in English, English language to be specific, despite the fact that all the characters are speaking Japanese. If you were watching the dubbed version of the show it might not be a problem. But it’s weird if you’re watching the subbed version of the show and then you have these songs in English. That’s an executive decision they made. Moving on, almost every episode has a song in it. Additionally, every episode title in Carole & Tuesday is named after a specific song. I haven’t dug into it that much but every episode title seems to relate to what is happening in that episode specifically. That’s something I haven’t really seen before. While I haven’t watched a show specifically focused on music before, I have watched shows that have musical characters like Marceline in Adventure Time, voiced by Olivia Olsen, a singer, and she sings all sorts of songs.

Nerdily [laughs], in late 2019, I put together her whole music arc. I posted that on Reddit, along with a listing of all the episodes she’s appeared in within all the Adventure Time seasons. And you can put together that into at least 40 minutes of songs that she’s sang during the whole series. That’s only one example of shows that have musical characters. Just take Steven Universe: The Movie as an example. The whole thing is a musical, although not every line of it is sung like Les Miserables. [laughs]. Generally, Steven Universe, is stocked full of songs, although in Steven Universe Future so far, there’s only been a couple of songs that have appeared in the episodes, something which surprised some who had watched the movie. Coming back to Carole & Tuesday, this series specifically focuses on music, which is unlike any other animated series I’ve seen, as I noted earlier. As an additional plus, the show has a lot of LGBTQ representation in it. Furthermore, it focuses on a lot of struggles that people have in terms of getting through the music industry and tries to make the characters more realistic, especially when we come to Carole and Tuesday and the struggles that they have to go through. Although they have all this popularity, begun when Roddy uploads a video of them playing in the Immigrant Hall, which goes viral, they don’t have that much money. Carole is always getting fired from these part-time jobs. Tuesday has a part-time job at a food stand. I think the fame they get at the end is getting them   some money. But they’re really scraping by unlike some of their competitors.

One of those competitors is Angela, who helps them later on. And she has all this money. In fact, she works with Tao, this music producer who uses this advanced A.I., which reminds me a little of Rui in Gatchaman Crowds who has an A.I. and cross dresses. But I’ll talk about Gatchaman Crowds in another podcast in more detail. Back to Carole & Tuesday, let me continue talking about Angela. She doesn’t even come up with the songs she sings. Rather, Tao’s AI comes up with the songs and she just sings them. She doesn’t even write them or anything. She has this immense privilege that Carole and Tuesday don’t have at all. Carole and Tuesday are, in contrast, trying to come up the ladder, without a major record label behind them or anything.

Let me talk about Angela just a little more. In the second half of the show, she has an emotional breakdown almost equivalent to Angela Moss’s breakdown, Angela Moss played by Portia Doubleday, in Mr. Robot. The breakdown happens not in the recent season of Mr. Robot, because I haven’t seen that one, but the one before it. I think Season 4. In the Carole & Tuesday show, Angela not only loses her mother but Tao leaves her. There’s a person who’s stalking her. The so-called Black Knight who spies on her. So she really has a lot of trouble during these episodes, which Netflix divided into two parts, which you could argue are two different seasons. I say it’s all just one, but people watching Netflix probably think of it differently.

Another one of my favorite parts was Episode 9, “Dancing Queen,” where there appeared this Drag Queen quartet, The Mermaid Sisters, and they sing the funniest moment in the whole anime. They sing a 1-minute song named “Galactic Mermaid” with the most expletives ever, which is stopped by one of the judges, and they threaten the judge as a result, for being discriminatory. With that, they should be seen as LGBTQ characters as they call themselves “not men or women” and a “new kind of human” when they perform. I couldn’t stop laughing when listening to it. [laugh] That brings me to another reason to watch the show: comedic elements from episode to episode. At the same time, the show doesn’t always hold together as well. But I still really like it. And I think it is a really interesting show and I would really recommend it to anyone if you haven’t seen it. The episodes are about 22 to 23 minutes long, so you might feel that is too long or you be annoyed by the animated opening. That’s fine. I’d like to stand by the show in this respect however, since the episodes were the right length, in my opinion, and I enjoyed the animated opening, which was the same for the first half of the episodes. Up to episode 11 or 12 there is the same opening at the beginning and then they change it in the last half of the show.

There is one consistent part that stays in the animated opening of every episode: the so-called seven minute miracle, narrated by Gus, where all these musicians come together from across Mars and sing this song of freedom. This happens in the final episode, where Tuesday, her brother, and others have realized that Tuesday’s mother, Valerie, was manipulated by political consultant who wanted her to take all these anti-immigrant positions. So, she drops out. The final episode is the one where they ramped up too quickly, I’d argue. The song they sing is like We Are the World or even like that Simpsons parody where they’re all singing for Bart Simpson in the well in a song titled “We Are Sending Our Love (Down the Well)”. And it turns out to be a total fake, although he later falls down the well himself. You could say that the song in Carole & Tuesday and the idea it will “change” the world is unnecessarily idealistic. Perhaps that is true, but not everything in anime or animated shows is realistic, and there is no reason it should be.

I don’t have anything else to say about the show, except that I like the the realistic elements of it even though it is set on Mars. And some of the sub-stories, about Gus and all his connections, since he was former music producer, is sort of funny, the sleazy DJ, Ertegun, the AI music, Dunn, the father of Carole who finds out she is on Mars or the A.I. robot, which helped Carole and Tuesday produce this music video, which then later ends up to be a scam. So that doesn’t really work out. [laughs] Before ending this podcast, I’d like to focus on the importance of race in this anime. On the one hand, Carole and Tuesday are a multiracial musical duo, since Carole has brown skin and Tuesday has white skin. On the other, the immigrants who are arrested by the equivalent to ICE have the same skin color as Carole, which is part of the reason she is more sympathetic to them, at first, than Tuesday, who has immense privilege without question. I’ve read some reviews which argue there are racial stereotypes in the show itself. Personally, I think the show has some strong brown-skinned, or Black, if you are to use the racial categorization used primarily to refer to those who reside in the United States, characters, like Ezekiel, a rapper who immigrated from Earth and the rest of his “crew.”

There are all these other characters which I find fascinating. One of them is Tobe, a legendary record producer who works for Carole and Tuesday and he is a horrible person, along with being an asshole. Even so, he pushes them forward despite the fact that he really seems like a drunk when they first meet him, a terrifying scene. That scene makes it clear that socioeconomic differences are part and parcel of the show’s themes. Not only is there a clear difference of class between Carole and Tuesday and their competitor, Angela, but when Carole and Tuesday go to the favela, the slum, in the city, they are scared about what will happen to them. Such a response indicates their sensibilities: although they are also poor, they are scared of how others, who are poor, are living. This is more forthright than shows like Classroom of the Elite, for example, which only focuses on struggles between characters, in different school classes, aspiring to enter the highest class in Japanese society, some classes scheming against each other. I don’t want to spoil anything more about that show, but I will say it does focus on struggle between socioeconomic classes, in an allegory of sorts, although Carole & Tuesday is arguably stronger on this point since the two protagonists are relatively poor as I mentioned earlier.

With this theme and others, I would say this show holds together, in general. This is despite the fact it should have been a longer show as I noted earlier. All these these 24 episodes should have been part one. And then, there could’ve been another season. But, that’s not really the direction they wanted to go. The end of the show sets the stage for anyone writing any fanfics about Carole & Tuesday, with already 66 fictional works penned for characters in this anime on Archive of Our Own.

That’s about it. I don’t have anything else to say at this point. I’ve exhausted everything I’ve had to say about Carole & Tuesday and any related shows. Thank you, everyone, for listening. And I hope to see you next week.

[end of commentary]

[Closing:] You’ve just listened to an episode of Hermann View by Burkely Hermann. The opinions expressed in this podcast are my own and not reflective of any institution. Follow us [on podcasts.com] if you liked what you heard and share it with your friends. You can follow me on Instagram at historyhermann one word or on Twitter at history_hermann.

[ending music]


Notes

[1] When I tried to add an entry for Cybelle on the Wikipedia page, “List of animated series with LGBT characters” one user, apparently from Ontario, declared that “Cybelle’s sexuality is just as Ambiguous as Pytor and Benito (male mar’s brightest judge). Even the site TV tropes has her as ambiguous” and that “Cybelle from carole and tuesday in 2019 was never confirmed to be a lesbian. Just like Pytor and Benito haven’t been confirmed to be LGBT either.” My original text, which uses episodes 9, 10, and 11 as sources, along with a CBR review, a review in The Daily Dot, and the official character description which simply called her “Mars’ Brightest contestant and Tuesday’s biggest fan”. I used the following text along with classification of her as lesbian:

As Tuesday’s biggest fan, she has a dangerous obsession with her, leading the former to ultimately reject her. Cybelle becomes an emotional wreck because of Tuesday’s rejection, conducting an attack on Tuesday, hurting her hand with an exploding present, in an act of jealousy, minutes before they are supposed to play on stage.

There seems to be some that think she is lesbian on certain subreddits, with some even questioning what gender she is, while others classified her as a “creepy lesbian,” a description which is definitely accurate.

[2] Other articles show how Sugar and others fought for this to be a reality. When I say the possibility they would be cancelled, I think I was remembering this line in an article in The Guardian back in October 2019: “The wedding decision was not taken lightly. Sugar was aware that the episode, as well as her decision to come out as bisexual, could lead to funding being pulled or the show being dropped altogether.” Even that Reuters article, reprinted on another Reuters site, says that Sugar “had to battle for years to include it [the lesbian wedding between Ruby and Sapphire] in her show, which has been censored in multiple countries.”

Autistic Entrapta, the perils of dataist thinking, and fan fictions

A screenshot from Entrapta’s debut in “System Failure,” s1 of She-Ra and the Princesses of Power, the first time we see her in that episode.

Recently, I read a thought-provoking article by Bohyun Kim in Information Today, which I mentioned in my recent newsletter, where she talked about “data-ism.” She defined this term as data replacing our thinking to validate or invalidate a hypothesis, with data and algorithms seen as “a superior means to process data” and find meaning in it, as compared to human thoughts. She added that such a concept is enabled not by a particular technology but by a “specific group of people who will benefit from implementing data-ism society-wide at the cost of others outside that group” like those behind Facebook and Google. This brings me to She-Ra and the Princesses of Power where one character embodies this ideal above anyone else: Entrapta. You could say she is a dataist, pure and simple. However, she may not fully fall into this category as she has her own thoughts and experiences, like when she tries to stop the portal from opening or her decision to join Bow, Adora, and the other heroes. Admittedly, she is one of my favorite characters, correctly described as autistic by the show’s existing fandom, even having a tag on Archive of Our Own: “Autistic Entrapta.” [1] After all, she is autistic as noted on a leaked character sheet for the show itself. This is part of the reason I included her in some of my fan fictions, noted later within this post.

I must warn you, for those who haven’t finished Season 4 of She-Ra and the Princesses of Power, that there are some spoilers, not only for that season but for the whole show. Long story short, Entrapta is a princess with prehensile hair who is a scientist and inventor always trying to tinker with ancient technology. A number of her experiments go terribly wrong, like the creation of murderous robots in “System Failure” (her debut in the series). She is originally portrayed as deep into her work and about experimenting with ancient technology (“First Ones tech”). In a later episode, she is unintentionally stranded in the Fright Zone, in “No Princess Left Behind“, the aftermath of the kidnapping in “Princess Prom.” This is where the villains, known as the Horde, have their home base. She later joins them in “The Beacon.”

This episode is why some, like Ana Mardoll, say there are “problems” with Entrapta. She argued, back in December 2018, that it is hurtful that the one neurodiverse (ND) team mate turned evil because she is supposedly “too much of a reckless fool to realize that evil is bad.” They further state that she is, in their view, a “collection of parodies and stereotypes about ND people being foolish and easily confused and laughably simple to lie to.” She also argues that Entrapta’s so-called “fall to evil” frustrates them because the show gives Catra complex reasons for why she stayed with the Horde and claims that Entrapta plays off “abelist assumptions” about ND people. While I can understand this perspective, it is clearly misguided. She is a character who is undoubtedly autistic, but also sweet and an “underappreciated technowizard.” The latter is key. Even though she joins the Rebellion, serving as part of the Princess Alliance, after “System Failure,” this is short-lived. Remember how Glimmer reacts to her in that debut episode: very negatively, often grumbling and sighing, only wanting Entrapta to join them in order to impress her mom and get the Rebellion “cool junk” to defeat the Horde. The fact that her and Adora both make fun of Bow for his pretty cool “trick arrows” says something about how they feel about Entrapta. What Glimmer declares, along with acting occasionally aggressive toward her does not bode well. The only person who sympathizes with her is Bow, saying:

She’s a brilliant inventor. She makes robots and rehabs old tech left by the First Ones. She’s a pretty big deal in the Etherian Makers Community…I bet Entrapta will like my arrows…Entrapta has traps set up all over her castle. They’re supposed to be really cool…Big fan of your work, princess. Maybe not this, but your other work.

He says the last two lines after he bows to her. She gladly accepts his praise, chuckling and saying “hi,” and he then kisses some of her prehensile hair courteously after she extends it to shake hands with him. The screenshot from that episode, showing her reaction is below:

She is pretty friendly and nice to Glimmer and Adora throughout the episode, even wanting a “date” with Glimmer to discuss how teleportation works. She even offers to give up her leg to save them from the murderous robots. As such, I’m not sure how people can call her “un-sympathetic.” After all, all of them, plus the kitchen staff, work together to take down the virus from the infected First Ones disk, with Bow and Entrapta working together. Not surprisingly, she, of course, puts the disk together again at the end of the episode.

Her only other appearances, before she joins the Horde in “The Beacon” are “Princess Prom” and “No Princess Left Behind.” In the first of these episodes, Entrapta comes to the prom, happily greeting Adora and Glimmer, asking if they are there for the “social experiment” where, as she describes it,

Different groups are forced to mingle. Hierarchies form and break. It’s the perfect place to observe behavior. And they have tiny food.

She pries a bit into Glimmer’s emotional uneasiness in the episode, making her annoyed with Entrapta, while Mermista doesn’t want to involve herself in that or in Entrapta’s observations. With all this excitement, Entrapta calls it “the best social experiment ever.” After all, she is a person who “loves science and refer[s]…to parties as “social experiments” while standing off to one side,” having trouble making friends. Later on, in the evening, Adora remains protective of her, with Catra helping her get a better vantage point. It is then that Entrapta and Catra become a bit friendly. She calls Catra her new “assistant…[who] brought snacks,” with Catra saying she stole her food, and asked Catra to spy on the crowd with her. She teases Adora with the idea this is “love,” who pulls Entrapta aside, reminding her of the allegiances she has agreed to:

Entrapta, she’s from the Horde. The people the Rebellion are fighting? The Rebellion you’re a part of.

Some say that she feels a bit oblivious, but perhaps perhaps her heart isn’t into the Rebellion. After all, who, other than Bow, has actually treated her with respect? Even Adora is pretty forceful with her. Add to this what happens in “No Princess Left Behind”: Entrapta goes with Sea Hawk, Mermista, Perfuma, and Frosta to rescue Glimmer and Bow. She becomes enamored and enchanted with Horde technology, even re-programming a Horde bot she names “Emily,” later shown in the episode, “Promise.” Even the patience of Perfuma is tested by Entrapta, while Mermista is a bit annoyed as well. Still, they all feel awful when they think Entrapta is killed in a blast during their escape. That brings us to “The Beacon.” Mardoll is saying that Entrapta is a “reckless fool” for not realizing that the Horde is “bad” and that she is taken in by Catra’s lies. But is this really totally the case? Catra already had a rapport with Entrapta after Princess Prom, so iThey already know each other to an extent. Even Scorpia knew who she was. As she told them, their cuffs weren’t holding her. She stayed there as her choice. On the one hand you could say that Catra tapped into Entrapta’s insecurities. On the other, no one, apart from Bow, treated her with respect when she was part of the Princess Alliance. They all tried to use her. Of course, the Horde also wanted to use her too, but I doubt she is naive to such an extent that she does not recognize what the Horde is doing to the planet.

Rather, as Beth Elderkin pointed out, it isn’t clear whether she even knows she defected, or if she even cares what side she is on. This is clear in the “Ties That Bind” when she tentatively says she is on the side of the Horde, only after Glimmer asks her “Entrapta, are you on the Horde’s side?”. Here’s her full response to that question:

I’m on the side of science. But I am living at the Fright Zone now and the Horde is supplying me with tools and materials for my work. So, yes, I guess?

Rather, she only cares about the pursuit of knowledge, with people around her “only worth the data they [can] provide.” As a result, she is often undergoing dangerous experiments, taking notes, and “making hypotheses based on the results.” This means she is person with clear “moral ambiguity” but seems to not even care about what the Horde is doing to the planet as a whole. Catra, to quote again from Elderkin, serves as a “listening ear” to Entrapta, showing her new technology and giving her free reign. This allows her to hack the planet, with her restraints gone, beginning in “Light Hope,” while ignoring the signs that Catra plans to use her technology to hurt millions, possibly because she doesn’t care. The same could be said for the fact that her experiment almost destroys the world but is reversed thanks to the combined power of the princesses in the Season 1 finale, “The Battle of Bright Moon.”

Mardoll also quotes from Abigail Nussbaum, who writes another criticism in “The Problem of Entrapta“, claiming that Entrapta is “the embodiment of the idea that you can’t trust mentally ill and ND people with guns or power or being president or whatever,” or that it is “impossible to “redeem” Entrapta with a reveal.” Rather, she argues that Entrapta “has to face her actions and atone,” while further claiming she is “being written in a way which seems to suggest that autistic folks lack that capability to self assess.” She even claims that “the overall collection of her personality traits has a high correlation to us [ND people], so the portrayal of her fall to villainy needed to be handled with care–and it wasn’t.” She further declares that Entrapta “was turned through a combination of being profoundly foolish and utterly lacking any empathy: two harmful stereotypes about ND folks.” This is an incorrect reading of her character. To bring in Elderkin again, clearly Entrapta is naive, but she is also adorable, and is “so disconnected from the world’s problems that she doesn’t even know she’s a villain,” making her a true “morally grey character.” To say she is foolish is silly. She could have left the Fright Zone at ANY TIME. But, she did not. Why? She has a “cheerfully wobbly moral compass” and more importantly a “Oppenheimer-like joy of discovery” above any ethical choices. This is a reality that neither Mardoll nor Nussbaum can recognize. Surely, she doesn’t fully recognize that her experiments are “not just hypothetical ideas, but real things that affect real people” to quote from Elderkin. But that doesn’t make her a bad person.

What about those that say she “often exemplifies the clinically un-empathetic autistic stereotype”? This belief tied with the claim that she is “evil by lack of “theory of mind”” is incorrect. While I agree that it would be great if she could “grapple more with morality, manipulation, and pursuing obsession” and have more of “her emotional and compassionate empathy…revealed to the audience,” she does express emotions in relation to Emily, a robot she had modded out of a Horde robot, to help her with her work, just like those robots she modded out as war machines in “The Frozen Forest.” Without a doubt, she is blindly dedicated to research, no matter the cost, and undoubtedly has social anxiety. Even so, she finds humanity in the villainous Hordak, working with him to build an inter-dimensional portal, starting in “Signals.” After seeing him break down with weakness, she creates an armored suit for him, allowing them to become friends, beginning in “Huntara.” This suit is later damaged by Catra in the most recent season as a way of manipulating him to do what she wants.

It is evident that Entrapta believes that her data and calculations will give her the method to discover the “answers,” no matter the cost. Take what she said in “White Out” as an example of this mentality:

Entrapta’s observation, in response to Catra telling them they need to leave, is correct

With that all being said, I would not say she is “un-empathetic” or that she does not have agency. She willingly stays with the Horde, a decision that the princesses respect in “Ties that Bind” and “The Signal,” although they disagree with it. That’s at least how I’ve always seen it. She even sticks up for Catra and is able to convince Hordak she is valuable, which leads him to send her to the Crimson Waste to get a specific artifact in “The Price of Power.” You could claim she doesn’t listen to Adora trying to talk sense to her, telling her to not use the Sword of Protection to open the portal in “Moment of Truth,” but she does actually take into account what Adora is telling her. And after doing some tests, she realizes that Adora is right! Sure, she trusts the data, but she uses it with her own thoughts and analysis, making it a bit different from her typical dataist thinking. In same episode, she has a revelation that shows this to be the case: the anomalies of the portal will be “catastrophic,” unhinging time and space, “creating a warped reality that would collapse in on itself, erasing us from existence.” She tries to warn Catra about this, saying she has to tell Hordak, but she angrily zaps her with a stun gun, ordering Scopria to send her to Beast Island, which she reluctantly complies with. Catra then lies to Hordak, claiming Entrapta was on the side of the princesses all along, and he does not discover this lie until the end of Season 4. As this season comes to a close, Catra opens the portal and almost destroys the whole world, as recounted in “Remember” and “The Portal,” with Adora barely saving the day. Apart from Angella’s sacrifice, the latter is partly thanks to the help of Entrapta in the bizarre alt-Etheria world, who helps them, to an extent, fix reality in the best way she can. At the same time, she has compassion, saying to Adora at one point: “it was nice being friends with you” as she fades away from existence, at least in this bizarre world.

For much of Season 4, she doesn’t make an appearance, with Scorpia concerned about her, as shown in “The Coronation,” while Catra angrily wants her recordings, noted in “Princess Scorpia.” Almost, as a sort of payback, Entrapta, along with Adora, is one of those people who haunts Catra in her dreams in “Flutterina.” In a later episode, “Beast Island,” Adora describes Entrapta as having “purple hair and really likes robots. Like, really, really likes robots,” and they discover she is still alive. She is said to be heading for the center of the island, and when it seems all hope is lost, she literally saves them (Bow, Swift Wind, Micah, and Adora/She-Ra). So much for saying she doesn’t have compassion. Here’s what she says after she rescues them, with a smile on her face:

In the following episode, “Destiny Part 1,” her life on the island is explored a bit more. Clearly, she is overjoyed that the island is full of “technological monstrosities,” calling it “paradise,” glad to help them learn about the heart of Etheria. She brings them to an ancient temple, calling it “amazing,” saying the answers she is looking for are there, pulling up a directory of various files. She reveals to them that all the princesses are part of the Heart of Etheria project, with She-Ra as the key, channeling the weapon, with the First Ones using the sword to control and use her. Adora learns she doesn’t get to refuse this task, to her horror, and Entrapta wants to stay on the island, no matter what:

Bow and Adora are able to pull her away from this, although she struggles thoroughly and claims that no one understands her, which is partially true, based on her past experience with the Princesses and the Horde. As it seems she will be engulfed by the vines, Bow talks to her about friendship and then, Adora, as She-Ra mentions they came on a ship with ancient technology. This pulls her out of her funk, although she admits that Bow’s talk didn’t affect her. Despite this, she is glad that her and Bow are friends. This means that Entrapta goes with them back to Bright Moon because of data and scientific discovery, not because of friendship or anything else. In many ways, her character subverts the Entrapta from the original She-Ra series whom is a “villainous technician…a skilled inventor, and is credited with designing advanced equipment for The Horde…[and] her speciality is devising different traps for members of The Rebellion.” She also can “design and create complex machines and inventions to be used by The Horde….mentally control her long hair at will…[using it[…to capture enemies or to control her various machines.”

In some ways, her character reminds me of Peridot in Steven Universe, even more than Spinel (who also struggles with friendship), as there are a lot of parallels. For one, both characters have, at first, a love or attachment to their robots, rather than people or other beings. Entrapta has her robotic servants, and later Emily, while Peri has her robonoids, which Steven says are “like her babies” in her debut in “Warp Tour,” and adeptly uses technology as shown in “Marble Madness.” Later she works with Jasper, treating Lapis as an informant (and prisoner) as noted in “The Return” and “Jail Break.” However, her plans revealed in “Keeping Together,” and she is injured by the Crystal Gems in “Friend Ship,”  is poofed by them in “Catch and Release.” Due to a friendship with Steven, she grows in the coming episodes, becoming more aquainted with Earth culture, helps them build a drill to the center of the Earth, and begins to respect other beings more (“When It Rains“, “Back to the Barn“, “Too Far“, “Steven’s Birthday” (non-speaking), “It Could’ve Been Great“, “Message Received“, and “Log Date 7 15 2“, “Super Watermelon Island“, “Gem Drill“, and “Same Old World“).

She thinks about the Gem plans for Earth just like Entrapta does about her inventions, as shown in “It Could’ve Been Great” and “Message Received,” but these types of thoughts change. She learns how to be better with people, strikes up a relationship with a water gem, Lapis Lazuli, another one of my favorite characters, apart from Peri. Both are skeptical of each other in “Barn Mates” but later get more acquainted after “Hit the Diamond” and in other episodes (referenced in “Too Short to Ride“, “Beta“, “Earthlings“, and “Back to the Moon“). As the show’s episodes continue, she becomes more comfortable with herself and her connections to other beings (and people) (as shown in “Kindergarten Kid“, “Gem Harvest“, “Adventures in Light Distortion“, “The New Crystal Gems“, and “Room for Ruby“), although she is not as adept at social situations. For instance, it is revealed she lied to Lapis so she’d feel better (in “Raising the Barn“) and she begins to suffer depression (beginning in “Back to the Kindergarten“) after Lapis leaves Earth. She makes such an impression on Lapis, that this water gem references her as part of her song in “Can’t Go Back“. Apart from handing out flowers at Ruby and Sapphire’s wedding in “Made of Honor“, the first gay wedding in a commercial cartoon, embrace each other in “Reunited“. Both her and Lapis help the fellow Gems fight the Diamonds in “Change Your Mind“. And of course, she appears in the recent Steven Universe movie, having a vital role there, determining the injector fluid with her robonoids and technology.

There is one major difference between Peri and Entrapta. Unlike Peri, Entrapta has not opened up to others in the same way. But this is not surprising, due to the fact she was in environments where people either felt displeased about her (among the princesses) or exploited her skills (among the Horde). When she appears in the season finale, “Destiny Part 2,” there’s nothing she nor Adora can do to stop Light Hope’s plan, at least at first. Hordak learns about Catra’s lies about Entrapta and attempts to kill Catra with his laser canon arm. In this episode, Entrapta only gets a few lines, but they are important ones, for the story. For instance, when talking to Bow, who asks what is happening, she says, “it’s a portal. A big portal. With the planet balanced, the portal capabilities must be back online. We’re getting pulled through.” A screenshot from that scene shown below, indicating she is a bit excited about what will happen next:

She tries to be optimistic, noting they aren’t in Despondos but are in the “wider universe” now. Adora is able to stop Light Hope’s genocidal plans but cannot stop the arrival of Horde Prime with a huge fleet of warships. She-Ra is destroyed, Adora thinks, because the sword is gone. These events, sets the stage for the next undoubtedly eventful season…

That leads me to the second section of this post.

Building upon Entrapta’s “dataism” within my fan fictions

A screenshot from her debut episode

I mentioned Entrapta in one of my first stories, where Queen Angella laments to Samurai Jack about Entrapta working for the Horde:

Entrapta would be the perfect person to help you with constructing such a device, but…she is now working with the Horde, bringing her technology genius and inventor abilities to the side of evil…Our spies inside the Horde have indicated that the Supreme Leader of the Horde, Lord Hordak, is building a portal, likely with the help of Entrapta.

I then built out her character more when Adora, Glimmer, Bow, and Jack go to the Crystal Castle, with Light Hope able to see Entrapta’s thoughts, as she worked with Entrapta to improve a portal which surprised Adora, asking herself why she was “working to turn the lightness of the world into darkness” and wondering if she had a “conscience of her own” or not. It also is part of the reason she breaks down later in the same story. In a story later on, characters suspect she helped hack into Light Hope, and she ends up being one of those who wants to shroud the planet in darkness, working with Hordak. I described her “almost slavish dedication to “science” no matter how much it hurt the planet,” and noted the “evil look in her magneta-colored eyes as her prehensile lilac hair quickly tapped on the keyboard,” as she said:

“Progress is going great! Our hack of Light Hope was a success…and the crumpling of that crystalline structure means it will be so much easier to get First One’s tech for our machines. The Rebellion will think it’s gone and done for, allowing us to go in without a trace. Now, if we could hack into all the runestones, perhaps we could even track the princesses…this…I must say…is all so exciting!”

Catra and Entrapta interact, I believe in episode, ‘The Frozen Forest.’ This is likely what she would have looked like as she typed onto that keyboard in my fan fic

In the same story, Hordak praised her on the progress she had made. At one point, with only one Horde robot created by her remaining near the Crystal Castle, Bow directly addresses her:

Entrapta, someday you’ll regret all this and realize the destruction you have caused to this planet…what you are doing is wrong…it’s not for science, as you may think, it’s for evil. I hope you change your mind.

Despite this, his words don’t move her and she rigged the remaining robot to explode, which happened in “Frozen Forest.” Later, Entrapta greets Samurai Jack “with a friendly, and warm, smile,” and is very fascinated by his desire to travel back in time and across dimensions. Sadly, Jack isn’t moved by the pleas of his friends, and he accurately saw:

a 30-year-old woman who was kind, but lonely, having a positive outlook on life, and dedicated to pursuing knowledge and discovery through her experiments and research. It filled him with joy to meet someone thrilled with learning new information, although she seemed a bit obsessive in this process. Even so, he could see that such dedication would lead to a disregard of morality, meaning she would not recognize that her work could hurt others. In a thundering voice, he told the rest of them his intentions and why he had come there.

He then defends Entrapta, although she warned him not to use the portal due to the possibility of error. Even so, she feels oligated to help him despite “her reservations about the safety of the portal itself” and he travels across dimensions, although not to the world he wanted. Ultimately, there is nothing she can do other than “shutting down the whole portal.”

Entrapta has a breakthrough with Hordak in the “Signals” episode.

Apart from that, I talked more about her as a person in other stories, fleshing her out as a character:

The fact that Entrapta didn’t pick up their magical signatures, on her computer, had been a miracle. It was a happy coincidence she had been in a deep sleep. She needed rest, especially since she had an older age than many of the princesses, who were in their teens, having lived and breathed for 30 years on the planet…Preparing to attack them with her prehensile hair, Adora stunned her with a regulation stun gun which she had taken from a Horde soldier…Although she was in a daze, she could hear Pearl and Adora utter a few stern words, “Entrapta…it’s time to talk,” while the others surrounded her in a semi-circle. The time for reckoning was at hand

She then serves as a major part of my story that served as the capstone of part 1 of my “An Unlikely Alliance Against Evildoers” series. She asked why they had stunned her, and the heroes, including Glimmer, reminded her of the “scientific experiments she had conducted which “caused the destabilization of Etheria, almost killing them in the process.” After Hordak’s death devastated her she opened the portal, wanting to join the ultimate Horde leader, but she relented. In the same story, she had a self-revelation to everyone:

My god, you must think I am a monster. I can understand why you are angry at me. I only wanted to conduct scientific experiments, collect data, and test the boundaries of thought. I never wanted to hurt anyone. But, in the process, I blindly charged ahead, not thinking of how my actions would affect other people. I am sorry and I ask for your forgiveness

With this, some, like Perfuma, wanted to forgive her, while others wanted her to “pay penance for what she had done.” She did this by helping them begin dehordeification, starting with the Fright Zone’s destruction (which happened thanks to her “ingenious implosion”) after her materials had been moved back to her castle in Dyrl. Later, she talks with Peridot and works to “ensure that the new archives would have the appropriate technology,” even though she would also have a trial. She also had a minor mention in my recent story with Glimmer noting she is “awaiting trial,” although I didn’t give any more details at this point. Undoubtedly, she will come up in some of my future stories.

That’s all I have for today. Until next week! Comments are welcome.


Notes

[1] The Wikipedia page describes her as “the Evil Horde‘s chief technician…a skilled inventor…credited with designing advanced equipment for The Horde…[and has a] scientific and fact-based nature, and quickly warmed up to Catra and Hordak, with whom she forms an emotional relationship.” Other fans have speculated she was written with Aspergers Syndrome in mind or think it is highly evident without a doubt (see here, here, here, and here for example), even noted on TV Tropes.


Postscript

After posting this article on the She-Ra subreddit, I got some great comments on there I’d like to share here:

Super interesting to skim through. I think we tend to downplay the seemingly unattractive aspects of autism. Particularly the very data-driven robot meets interpersonal simpleton characterization. As an autistic woman in her 30s with a historical attraction to much older, evil men (ahem), myself, its defense often comes off as an attempt to soften those characteristics in order to make them more palatable to NTs. When in reality, many of the characterizations were misinterpretations of the autistic experience in the first place. Thank you for the analysis!- esjunsia

This was a really interesting read! Thank you for sharing! Entrapta is one of my favourite characters too and I agree with everything you said. The criticism you countered, that ‘it is hurtful that the one neurodiverse (ND) team mate turned evil because she is supposedly “too much of a reckless fool to realize that evil is bad”‘ – while I can kind of see where they’re coming from, I agree with you that it’s not entirely fair, not just for the reasons you mentioned but also because what evidence do they have that Entrapta even is “the one neurodiverse team mate”? I don’t see any reason to assume that. I’m neurodivergent too, but I actually recognise more of my own autistic traits in Adora. This post I found on tumblr explores that extremely well and I would definitely recommend reading it if you’re interested! – zutarakorrasami

I really hate everyone saying ‘oh she wanted Knowledge’ like her entire motivation for joining the Horde wasn’t believing her friends abandoned her – nor-fuck-pines

“He defined this term as data replacing our thinking to validate or invalidate a hypothesis, with data and algorithms seen as “a superior means to process data” and find meaning in it, as compared to human thoughts.” I’m on that field. No, noboby [sic] with a basic understading [sic] of statistics and/or pratical experience with data based analysis believes that. Some evangelists and vendors say that, but it’s because we need clients/funding. Human analysis still is the best by a huge margin – FellowOfHorses

I don’t know why autistic Perfuma hasn’t caught on. – Tropical-Rainforest

That’s all for now.